A STUDY OF THE ORIGINS, CONNECTIONS AND MEANINGS OF THE INDO-EUROPEAN WORDS REEKA, REE, REA (RIVER) IN LANGUAGE AND MYTHOLOGY
67 Rainier Sq. Toronto, Canada M1T 3A1
Logical explanations of how the very existence of the river created primary language religious and social concepts are given. These are as follows:
The part of the Classical Mythology associated with and created by the river. This study gives clear explanation of the classical relation of the Goddess Rea and supreme God Zeus. Many of classical gods and their traditions were received from the ’barbarians’. The barbarians were the ancient Europeans, non-Greeks, whose speech was not understood by the Greeks.
The concept associated with the Latin words ’regio’, ’rex’, which today are present as universal words in all European languages. In English these are region, regal, rule, king, regulate - control. This is the most primary concept for establishing land division borders, control, ownership, and social structure. Over time the concept of land division and ownership evolved into the concept of kingdom and separate countries, as they are known today.
The divine existence of 'continual indiscriminant' loving and 'giving' of the River to all living creatures on earth explains one of the most fundamental Christian believes today. Mother river (Ma-rika, Ma-Rea, Maria), in Classical times Rea, is the continual giver of life-sustaining water that gives birth to all Life on Earth. In Classical times Rea gives birth to Zeus, in Christianity Maria (Ma Ria) gives birth to Christ –Jihova that is Life itself on Earth.
The concept is associated also with the words recital, recite, and their related families, which in this study is named ‘the mode of speaking concept’.
“The Miracles of the River”
Rivers are naturally occurring phenomena full of great beauty. They are wonderful creations of nature; some are colossal yet others are small. They existed before man and have flowed forever, accompanying him from time immemorial.
Rivers can be raging or calm but they are always exciting and inspiring. They run on the surface of the earth carrying life-giving water, inspiring people to create poetry and dedicate songs to them. Every spring they swell and gush with new life as they bring water into the fields to sustain a host of living things. They forever give to all living plants and creatures without prejudice.
Is it possible that rivers may have influenced man to create early Mythology?
Could rivers have helped man create his languages?
Could rivers have influenced man to create, build and organize his existence and way of life around them?
The answers to these questions should not be surprising. Rivers create natural lines on the surface of the earth, which for early man was an easy way of dividing land. These natural lines helped him develop boundaries and create ownership. With ownership came rule, order and other concepts of his early existence.
To understand the mechanisms of primary language creation from nature, a deeper level of investigation is necessary. There is a logical explanation as to how rivers may have influenced early man, not only in his quest for dividing his land and establishing rule but also in the natural development of his primary language, religious and social concepts.
Before attempting to delve into these concepts, a number of questions come to mind;
These are questions that to this day have not been adequately answered and will be the basis for this analysis. To adequately answer these questions one needs to go back beyond those who wrote about the gods. One needs to go back to the “barbarians”, the original authors, and examine the true meaning of these myths and why the “barbarians” were compelled to create them.
To do that, one needs to understand the language of these “barbarians” and something about their traditions and way of life. There are clear indications that the Macedonian/Slavic Language offers the strongest clues in support of understanding the language of the “barbarians”. If the Macedonian language is used to interpret the meaning of some of these myths one quickly discovers living proof for the idea that ‘the creation of the Primary Languages was conceptual and not random’. What this means is that the people who created the myths, gods and their characteristics used common everyday occurrences that added meaning and experience to their lives. In other words, the Laws of Nature directly influenced language creation over a long period of development.
There are indications that the mechanics of the river had a lot to do with this conceptualization. For example, the continuous and never-ending flow of river water may have been responsible for the development of the concept of motion or movement . The ‘primary function’ of the river is delivering water, which is a basic requirement in sustaining life. Water, according to Aristotle, is also one of the four basic elements that make-up the world.
It is believed that the river was the impetus that created a significant number of important language concepts in the earliest period of Primary Language development. By using the Macedonian/Slavic language, as well as European languages, an analysis of the various language concepts associated with rivers will be performed to see how they compare to the Language Concepts and associated meanings of the Mythological deity Rea (Rea).
By use of the Macedonian/Slavic language, concepts of the Latin words “Region” and “Rex” and their modern derivatives will be examined and compared to concepts derived from the river.
Actual ‘ingredients’ that make up the most significant ‘time layers’ of Primary Language Creation in Europe and possibly the world will be provided. In other words, an attempt will be made to explain the long-term permanent influence of Nature on Man. The fact that “simple explanations” provide universal understanding of a number of universal concepts confirms the validity of these assumptions.
Explaining the Mythology associated with Rea, mother of Zeus (Zevs)
Archeology and history have revealed that most early human settlements, for obvious reasons, were located near steady flowing rivers. Besides the need for drinking, early man used river water to water crops, transport goods, fish and for protection against invasions and attacks. In contrast very few, if any, settlements existed on large deserts for a simple reason, the absence of water. Water, river water in particular, has been a vital ingredient for human survival and flourishment since the beginning of mankind.
Now let us go back to pre-Homeric times when the myths were actually created. The close similarity of Homeric words associated with the “river” and their Macedonian/Slavic equivalents can be seen in Table 1. Please note: ?,? = C,c (read as: TS,ts); ?,? = Č,č (CH,ch); C,c = S,s; ?,? = Š,š (SH,sh); ?,? = Ż,ż (ZH,zh)
Table 1. Some Homeric words associated with the “river” and their Macedonian/Slavic equivalents
Now that a close relationship between the Homeric words and their Macedonian equivalents has been established, the relationship between “Rea” and “Zeus” can be analyzed. Was this relationship purely arbitrary, concocted by the ‘imagination’ of the Ancient Europeans, or did it have a deeper meaning associated with something from the ‘natural world’? Was this a simple “mother and son” relationship or was it the logical evolution of man’s thinking, based on his continual observation of his surroundings and the need to understand, record in his own language and preserve an important event in his daily life?
Mainstream Mythology sources  have shown that ‘Rea gave birth to Zeus’. To uncover a deeper meaning, more needs to be understood about the natural characteristics of this relationship; the importance of birth, new life and of mother and son relationships. The meaning of each word in this relationship will be examined in the true language in which it was written and interpreted as closely as possible by use of the Macedonian/Slavic language.
The form/name Zeus (Zevs) is phonetically and functionally connected to the massive root of everything associated with life, living, existence, propagating, etc. It is well known that Zeus was the Supreme God and ‘ruled’ the other gods on the tallest mountain Holimbo (Xolimbos) > Olympus . It is also known that life and the joy of living is the greatest, most valuable, important, significant, precious, beautiful and dearest irreplaceable joy of existence. It is what the whole world and universal existence is all about.
It is then not unreasonable topropose that God = life? Or, Supreme God Zeus = life on Earth, or simplyZeus = life? Table 2 examines the root-word associated with life in the Macedonian/Slavic language. (Please note the Macedonian character ? (in Latinic script ž) is pronounced in English as zh).
Table 2. Macedonian/Slavic words associated with life.
It is important to note that there are a large number of words in the Macedonian/Slavic language, which fall into this conceptual relationship. What this indicates is that language development has greatly evolved since the creation of primary language. This relation is unparalleled in any other language group in Europe.
Once this concept is clearly understood, the true meaning of many concepts, natural laws, as well as the development of fundamental Christian and other world religion beliefs and rituals can easily be understood. In Macedonian today, and to a lesser extent in other Slavic Languages, there are expressions of the most solemn swearing of trust and pleading that goes like this, Table 3. The expressions carry a familiar reflection of the expression “by Zeus”. Human life, family and children are the most valuable entities of man’s existence.
Table 3. Some Macedonian/Slavic expressions of pleading and imploring.
It is important at this point to also point out the conceptual relationship of woman to procreation, offspring, existence and life propagation, as most profoundly expressed in Macedonian/Slavic Languages: ???? (zhena), ???? (zhene), ???? (zheni), ?????? (zheneti) > gene > genesis > genetics
Macedonian/Slavic is the only language in which one can find functional and phonetic/etymological root and word connections: woman > wife > marriage > creation and propagation of new life > living > existing
Since women are the divine and only entities that bear new life, then the above relationship reconfirms the meaning of life itself. Table 4 examines a group of Macedonian/Slavic words associated with this concept.
Table 4. Macedonian/Slavic words associated with the concept of divine and women.
Divos, divina, means all living things ‘God created in the Natural world’ untouched by humans, in other words all that is divine. An unmarried virgin woman in Macedonian/Slavic is known as a deva, devitsa, devoyka. She is the divine creation that propagates human life.
Here ????? (zhivos) evolves into????? (divos) butstill retains the meaning ‘all natural creation’. God is the only one responsible and capable of all natural creation. Thus God has given lifetoall living things.
The forms divo > diva > divi > dii are very similar and also provide an alternate meaning to the Latin words ‘dii > die > deus’. What is most interesting and significant is that ancient coins, which have been found in the Balkans with a form of the word “Divos” inscribed in them :
“qibos  = Dibos = divos”
qibos is similarly close to the Greek word qeios or qeos, which today is widely used in a significant part of society.
It is important to note here that in other European languages, words associated with the word Theos > Deos > God have only shallow etymological and functional root relationships. Curtius  has hinted to the possibility that some present forms of the word Theos could have evolved from the root/concept relating to divos, but he did not provide complete and convincing arguments mainly because he did not consider the Slavic languages as platforms for his interpretation. He quotes the Italian etymologist Ascoli  who identified ‘Theos’ with the Sanskrit root div and divja-s ‘heavenly’ and from div-eo-s arrived at dveos and theos:
divos > dibos > qibos > qeios > qeos
The Macedonian/Slavic group of words is firmly supported by the Sanskrit words, e.g. Jiv = Zhiv = living = life. Also, according to the bible, Eve > Ive is the first woman/life creator and propagator on earth, zhive > ive > eve.
All personal names based on Iva, Eva, Ivan, etc., are fundamentally based on the Macedonian personal names ???a (Zhiva), ???? (Zhive), ???a? (Zhivan), ????? (Zhivko), ????a (Zhivka), etc.
Furthermore the biblical form ‘Evangelie’ or ‘Evangelis’ can be explained in the combination of Eva < zheva = living, life + zelanie = (z)evanzelanie > zevanzelie > evangelie. ???a?? (zhelanie) is an old Slavic word for ‘to desire’, ‘to long for’or simply ‘???a(?)?????’ (‘Zheeva(n)zhyelie’) = desire for eternal life.
Note: The older form of God in the bible is Jihova (Jehovah) (the letter J is pronounced as ? (ZH)) which yields a very close affinity to the Macedonian/Slavic words ???a (Zhiva) > ?????a (Zhivota).
In Homeric writings, the word/forms Zi, Ze, Ziti (Zi, Zh, Ziti) mean to live, to breathe. These are characteristics of Zeus and are virtually identical to the Macedonian/Slavic words ?? (Zhi), ?? (Zhe), ???? (Zhiti).
To take the analysis a step further, there is also a connection between this concept and ???? (Zhito),a word that defines the early European staple food. Zhito is a fundamental staple food that sustains life and feeds the multitudes. In Macedonian and all Slavic languages, Zhito is the general term used to define all grains obtained from agriculture.
The word Zhito, however, is based on the root word ‘??’ (‘zhi’) and the particle to or ta (as in zhita), which is a modified form of do and da, respectively. Do and da, on the other hand, are derived or get their fundamental meaning from doi, dai, doe, nado(e), which mean feeding, nourishing .
Grains are lasting entities, everyday staple foods, fundamental ingredients forfeeding the multitudes and sustaining life in general. They are easily preserved in containers and can last for many years. They can be planted directly in the soil and will give new crops and new life. Agriculture, associated with grains, was the main thrust of early human societies in the development of Civilizations as are known today.
In the modern Macedonian language there is a dialectical form/verb, noun and adjective for ‘feeding’, which are ‘????’ (‘siti’), ‘????’ (‘site’), ‘??????’ (‘sitost’), ‘?a????’ (‘nasite’) and ‘???’ (‘sit’). All these forms belong to the concept of food, feeding and sustaining life.
Concept associated with Fundamental Christian beliefs
Up to this point it has been shown how and why Zeus, the most important God/Deity of the Ancient Europeans, was related to life. Life, however, is only possible with the existence and continual supply of water. The ‘river’, as has been shown, is an integral part in the supply of ever flowing water that sustains life. ??? (Ree) > ??a (Rea) > ????a (Rëëka) > ???a (Rëka) = River
The word ‘???a’ (‘Reka’) (river) in Macedonian/Slavic is in the feminine form like ???a/?a??a (zhena/mayka) (woman/mother); Rea > river > woman > mother, giver of life > zeevos > zevs > zeus
Life is connected to aspects of the Christian God. Water sustains life . This concept is reflected in the Christian rituals of Baptisms performed throughout the world. There is a parallel between the ancient model (Rea > Zeus) and the baptism of the lord Jesus Christ in the river, as recorded in the Bible. The Christening ritual is very much universal today as most Christian babies are baptized in church. As “Rea is giving birth to Zeus” or as the “river is supplying water to sustain life” so is the Christian ritual of bathing in water, signifying the birth of new life and the rebirth and renewal of man.
This ritual, however, was performed long before the emergence of Christianity and is well reflected in the ancient (700-800 BC) ritual performed by Macedonian priests .
There is also a parallel between the more recent “Maria the Devine mother of Jehovah–Christ” and the Ancient European “Mythological” concept:
Mythology Rea, ree, riako, rieka - river > gives birth to Zeus-life
Christianity Ma-ria, (Ma-rika) > gives birth to Jihova (Jehovah)-Christ–life
Even today Macedonians still name their daughters ?a??a (Maria) and ?a???a-?a????a (Marika-Marëëka) in the old tradition. In the central region of Macedonia the dialectical form of the name “Maria” is pronounced MA-rëëka. The name, which is a remnant of an even older name meaning “divine river-mother’, is recorded in numerous songs over the centuries throughout Macedonia. It is a basic combination of the root word Ma (mother, Homeric Maia), and the word reeka (river) meaning “Mother River”.
In Macedonia and in the rest of the Balkans there are rivers whose names bear very close affinity to this concept. For example the River ?a???a (Maritsa) in southern Macedonia flows into the Aegean Sea. Maris(a) is a tributary of the Ister ( Danube) in Scythia . The River Margos is in Illyria. The River Marisos, in Dacia, flows into the Danube. Mareia is the name of a fountain in Alexandria and so on. There is also the Roman female name Markia, which can be derived from Marika.
There are numerous additional Christian rituals that place importance on water. A popular ritual in Macedonia is “??????” (“Voditsi”), celebrated in the early part of the year close to the birth of Christ. During this ceremony a cross (symbol of Modern Christianity) is ‘thrown’ into the river and young men dive into the water to retrieve it. People believe that the one who retrieves the cross will be blessed with good health, long life and good fortune.
Another ritual that has to do with water and dates back to Ancient European history is the ritual of ????e?e (Khladene) > ????e??? (Khladenets) > ???????? (Kladentsi). It has been practiced over a long period of time as recorded in Macedonia. The meaning of this term in Macedonian is connected to the water wells or springs that come from the depths of the Earth. Young brides visited these wells and ‘bathed’ themselves with their water, believing that the water that comes from the ‘depths of the earth’ will ensure fertility and long life. The details of this ritual are connected to the concept of Pluto-Hades–Presefatta . This ritual, according J. Kalleris , was specific to the Ancient Macedonians. Kalleris struggled to bring meaning to this ancient tradition but all he could do was to provide scanty and general information. He too did not consult the Macedonian and Slavic languages.
Concept associated with the Latin words Regio, Rex
Besides sustaining life, rivers also served man in many different ways. In this section the different roles the river played in man’s existence are examined.
A steady supply of river water was essential to early man as it allowed easy watering of crops. This was and still is done to this day by digging channels from a flowing river and allowing gravity to carry the water wherever it is needed. Later in human development the rivers became channels for travel and trade.
The best places for human settlements were near the junction of rivers. A good example of this is Mesopotamia (land between rivers) where the Sumerian Civilization established itself and flourished. The “land between rivers” was a good place to settle not only for the bountiful water supply but also for the protection it offered from outside attacks. The rivers, especially the fast flowing and turbulent ones, were natural barriers protecting the settlement from attacks. For the settlers the rivers were always there. They were constant companions and suppliers of life-giving water. Common sense was used in choosing a spot to build a community. Long term observation and scouting of the surroundings usually gave a good idea of the degree of safety and security of the area. An enemy could easily cross a little brook that dried up in the summer, but a large steady flowing river would be difficult to cross. Also if one river was affected in some way or dried up, the second river was still available.
The land near the rivers was chosen for its reliability and dependability to grow crops and produce bountiful harvests to feed the settlers. Undisturbed and with plenty of food to eat, settler communities grew and expanded. With growth came the need for control and division of property, which led to the appointment of leaders, rulers and later kings.
Because of their permanence and difficulty to cross, rivers became natural barriers for identifying divisions of territory and for establishing boundaries. Rivers cut the land and created natural lines, thus making them the most logical objects on which to establish boundaries between territories or between tribes of people. Thus the idea of rivers as natural lines of division gave birth to the concept of land boundaries and later of territorial claims.
According to D.P.Simpson , an authority on the Latin Language, the Latin based root word “regio” is connected with the word “line” as “in a straight, continuous line”. A space enclosed by lines can be an administrative division. Unfortunately, neither Latin nor Greek has the in-depth etymology to expand on this very important concept. That is why it is important to again venture into the Slavic realm and search for the necessary etymologies in the Macedonian/Slavic Languages.
As mentioned earlier, in nature a continuously flowing river is a permanent, well defined, hard to cross and reliable means of division of territory. The river cuts the land and creates a line. A line is not only easy to see, but it is a logical place to establish boundaries. Boundaries can be a division of land, which implies ownership. With ownership also comes the responsibility of control and with control there is a need to rule.
Now by using Macedonian/Slavic words the etymological relationship between river, division and rule will be shown:
???a (Reka) or ????a (Rieka) = River
???a (Riga) or ????a (Reska) = line (in Macedonian "reska" means a fine line)
The author believes that the early Latin words Regi and Regio came from Reka and Riga and from this the concept of Region developed. That later required a leader who was given power to rule and control the Region. The leader who ruled the Region was given the title Regis or Rex for King.
Rivers as dividing lines exist to this day and are borders for many modern countries. The old concept of control, order and ownership rights still live on in modern humans. Territorial division is not exclusively a human trait. Animals in nature also have territories but have other means for marking them. The most common markers that are known of are scents and odors.
The following are a number of English words, which are associated with the above mentioned concepts:
Regulate - to control
Irrigate, irrigation - watering the fields by controlling and channeling the water flow
Reign (L. regnare) - Rule as a King or Queen
Regent - to rule, acting in place of a king or ruler
Regatta - Meeting for boat or yacht races
There are many others.
It is worth mentioning at this point that the Italian and Latin word for River is Flumen, which bears no resemblance to the words Regi, Reka, or Reki. However, the Latin word rigo or riguus, which in English means water flow, is functionally related to "reka". In other words, the rivers flow and a flow of water can be a river.
The following is a list of Macedonian/Slavic words associated with the river, Table 5.
Table 5. Some Macedonian/Slavic words associated with the river.
According to Skok , except for the Basque language, where we have erreka = river = reka, there are no other parallels in the other European Languages with the word reka, rieka . However, this Basque form has a very close affinity to the Ancient Macedonian river in Pelagonija – Errigon. An additional correction is in order here. There is the English word ’creek’ (kreek) meaning a small river. This word has the same base as reeka = river. Also the Slavic word, verb kreta, krese = move, flow. Also Skok  indicates: “(Baski) erreka, is čega izlazi da bi praslavenska reč reka mogla pripadati pred-ie substratu” which in English roughly translates to “the pre-Slav word ‘river’ could belong to the pre Indo-European substrate.”
The Macedonian/Slavic words associated with the word “reka” have thus enormously influenced European and other languages. Because this kind of linguistic development takes place over long periods of time, one can imagine how ancient the Slavic language must be.
Concept associated with “speech - recital” “???? (Rechi) - ???????? (Rechenitsa)”
Under this concept, other aspects of the river will be explored, which will lead to a much higher level of appreciation for the natural phenomena.
It is a beautiful and mesmerizing experience to sit by a river for hours, watching its crystal clean water powered by gravity, endlessly flowing, twisting and turning as it hugs the rocky terrain, creating its own pleasant and soothing melody as it makes its trek downhill. Dancing to the tune of gravity, day and night the river never sleeps, never ceases to flow and makes its own natural sounds. If one sits long enough and listens hard enough, one will hear the voice of the river “talking”. Imagine being the river’s companion day and night in darkness and on clear moonlit nights, continuously listening to its melodious voice and never ending song. From time to time its voice will transform from words to melodies and back to words, repeating and reciting a beautiful natural concert, ever changing with the seasons.
In the distant past, people believed in river songs and told stories about them. Was it then possible that long, long ago the natural river sounds somehow influenced humans to create their speech by imitating the river?
If there are answers to be found they will be found in the archaic Homeric Poems, which should hold meanings associated with this concept. Although some poems may have been altered over time, others still contain clues to their origin. Examples of such clues are presented in Table 6.
Table 6. Remnants of vocabulary related to the concept of river in the Homeric Language .
And now for the Macedonian words:
????? (Rechish) ([what will you] (say), ???? (rechi) (say), ??? (rech) (word), ???? (reko) (said), ????? (rekov) (have said), etc., which are root words for the modern Macedonian words ?????? (rechnik) (dictionary), ???????a (rechenitsa) (sentence, string of words), ???????a (retsitira) (recite), ?????a???a (retsitatsiya) (recitation).
Homer has given samples of archaic words (names), which we can prove to a degree of certainty, that they are derivatives of the word “reka” or river. What is most interesting is that these words are also root words in the Macedonian language, associated with words that define speech like “say”, “word” and “recite”. A recital is an uninterrupted “flow of words” delivered in a poetic “sing-song” style like the flow of water in a river. One does not necessarily need to understand the meaning of the words to adore and appreciate the recital. A good example of this is Opera.
Reciting is not the same as talking = ????a (zbora). When a person talks it is called “zbora”. Is he talking? = Zbora? Or is he reciting a poem? = ???????a (Retseeteera)?
In Macedonian ???????a (Rechenitsa) is the flow of words = ???? (Rechi) expressed in one continuous sequence as compared to “zbora” which is related to the words ???? (zbir) (assemble), ????a (zbira) (assembly), ????? (sobor) (meeting), etc., which are related to interactive conversations.
In the Macedonian/Slavic language there are a number of forms that describe “verbal communication”. Each form specifies the “type” of verbal communication that is taking place. For example ?????? (govori) defines the form for giving a speech or addressing the masses. “Govori” also exists in Homer in a form that is not much different from the present form. ???? (Zbor) (word) and ??????a (zboruva) (speaking) is a form of two-way or interactive communication. There are also the Macedonian words ??? (pee) and ??? (poe) for singing, which are the root words for ???? (opëë), ????a (opeva), ???? (epeo), ??a? (pean), ?a?? (paen), ????a (pesna) (song, poem), etc. from which derive the modern words ??????a (poezija) (poetry), ????a (opera), ???? (epos) ???? (epic), etc. ??? (Pëë) as in “??? ?????” (pëë kniga) (reading or reciting from a book) is an old form of the word “pëë” used to this day in Aegean Macedonia.
The ability to analyze a few of the many concepts associated with the “miracle of the river” have been exclusively due to the use of the Macedonian/Slavic language. It has always been believed that mythology was not just fantasies but an integral part of man’s relationship to nature.
It is hoped that the interpretations given in this analysis will not only inform and entertain, but also provide the reader with a wider appreciation for early man’s quest to understand and define nature.
The true miracle of the river is only revealed to those who understand its language, the language of its real authors. The rivers may hold many miracles, which are yet to be discovered. But only those who believe in them may know them through the Macedonian/Slavic language in which they were recorded by their archaic authors, who witnessed them directly from the rivers themselves.
The Macedonian/Slavic language, or the “language of the barbarians” as the ancient scholars called it, has in it the most valuable and important linguistic information that will help all future linguists and etymologists achieve a better understanding of the European languages, and in general provide simple and logical meaning to many Natural Laws.
‘Language is the most remarkable and most characteristic of all human creations’
‘Jazikot e mediumot kade prirodata se odrazila i zabeležala. Toj ja prestavuva najčudotvornata i najgenialna kreacija na čovekot’
(‘Language is the media where nature is reflected and recorded. It represents the most miraculous and most genius creation of man.’)
References and Notes
1. G Curtius, Principles of Greek Etymology, Book II, Fifth Edition, John Murray, London 1886.
2. The author believes that the concept of motion, movement and travel was created from observing basic properties of water, specifically moving river water. When water is spilled, it flows and is guided by gravity, finds its own direction to move and leads its own way. In other words, water represents universal movement in nature. When observing nature, there is a natural tendency to conclude that river water is constantly running, moving, leading its own way. There are hints of this in the Macedonian/Slavic language. For example:
???a (Voda) (water) > ???? (Vodi) (to lead), ???-???a (Voy-voda) (leader).
3. H G Liddell, R Scott, H Drisler, Greek-English Lexicon Based on the German Work of Francis Passow, Harper & Brothers Publishers, New York 1850.
4. G H Liddell, A Greek-English lexicon. Clarendon Press, Oxford 1940.
6. In modern Macedonian there are the related forms: ??????? (Gholimbo) < ???????? (Gholimboz) < ????? ??? (Gholim bog) < ????? ??? (Golem bog) = Great god
7.The form ‘zivil’ (z > s(c)) has a very close affinity and relation to the German word ‘zivil’ = civil = regular or civilian life, compared to military life and the modern words civilian, civilization etc. A civilization is an existence of parts of the human race over a period of time. (ż>z>s(c))
8. Ref. , p. 131: “There are two coins, both preserved in Paris which are described by Monnet.” (Description de med antiques, vol.ii., p.280, Nos.179 and 185) with the legend 'gortinion divos'. Voretzsch regards this as proof that this legend meant 'God of the Gortynians'." It is indicated here that the word Divos = God. This word clearly connects to the Macedonian/Slavic words ??? (div), ???? (divo), ?????? (divovi), etc.
9. Ref. , pp. 131, 134: Connects ’theos’ to ’theo’ = run, “thought of even in antiquity by Plato” stating with his own words that “though a single god may have been called a ‘runner’, this would be strange if applied to the race of the gods in general.”
10. Ref. , page 135: "Ascoli talks on the etymology of the word ‘theos’ (Rendiconti del Reale Instituto Lombardo Classe de lettre e sc. morale politiv fasc) and again in ‘Kritische Studien’ 292 ff. and his explanation of this difficult word has met the approval of Schweizer in full review of the question (Ztschr.xvii 142)."
11. As part of the marriage ceremony the Macedonians, as well as other European cultures, throw grain ???? (zhito) on the bride and groom. This again symbolizes new life, procreation as the seeds are the procreators of new life. Also the word ????? (sitno) is related to something small like the grain. In the Bible, God gave men seeds to plant and procreate. Also the Macedonian peasants today, when starting new trees or plants from the cuttings of existing trees, embed grain/seed (usually wheat) at the bottom of the cutting. This, it is believed, helps the cutting increase its chances of developing roots.
12. Water, watta, voda is also an inseparable and virtually ‘fused’ part of the dialectical form of the word for life, ‘zhivota’ (t > d > t, w > v).
13. J Jamieson, Hermes Scythicus the Radical Affinities of the Greek and Latin Languages to the Gothic, University Press, Edinburgh 1814, p. 66:
O Belchevsky, A New Look at Classical Mythology with the Help of Slavic and Macedonian Vocabularies, Zbornik tretje mednarodne konference Staroselci v Evropi (Proceedings of the Third International Topical Conference Ancient Settlers of Europe), Jutro, Ljubljana 2005.
16. J Kalleris, Les Anciens Macedoniens. Coll. de 1'Institut Francais d'Athenes, Athens 1968.
17. D P Simpson, Cassell's New Latin Dictionary. Funk & Wagnalls, New York 1959.
18. P Skok, Etimologijski Rječnik Hrvatskoga ili Srpskoga Jezika, Book III. Jugoslavenska Akademija Znanosti i Umjetnosti, Zagreb 1971-74, p. 141
19. A small correction is in order here. There is the English word ’creek’ (kreek) meaning small river that has the same base as reeka = river. Also the Slavic word, verb kreta, krese = move, flow.
20. Hesiod. Theogony. Clarendon Press, Gloucester 1996.
21. In the author's opinion, the ancient Homeric form ‘riva - riba’ is not an error. It is a form given in the Homeric Poems. This may give light to the long sought explanation and relation of the words river > rive > ribe > riba - fish. It is natural and logical that at the time of Primary Language creation, that the word for fish - riba was associated with the word for river.
Podane so logične razlage, kako je v prvotnem jeziku že sam obstoj rek vodil v poimenovanje verskih in socialnih zasnov z besedami, izpeljanimi iz besede 'reka'. Te zasnove so:
Del klasične mitologije, ki je povezan z reko in ga je reka izzvala. To delo daje jasno razlago odnosa med boginjo Reo in vrhovnim bogom Zevsom. Mnoge bogove klasične dobe in njihovo izročilo so namreč Grki prevzeli od 'barbarov'. Ti barbari so bili prvotni Evropejci, Negrki, katerih govorice Grki niso razumeli.
Zasnove, povezane z latinskima besedama 'regio', 'rex', ki so sedaj prisotne v splošno uporabljanih besedah v vseh evropskih jezikih. V angleščini so to region, regal, rule, king, regulate. To je najstarejši pristop, kako določiti meje med zemljišči, nadzor, lastnino in socialno zgradbo družbe. Sčasoma je pristop k delitvi ozemelj in lastnine napredoval do pojma kraljestva in posameznih dežel, kot jih poznamo dandanes.
Božanski obstoj 'neprestane enakopravne' ljubezni in 'dajanja' reke vsem živim bitjem na zemlji razloži eno od najbolj osnovnih krščanskih verovanj. Mati reka (Ma-rika, Ma-Rea, Maria), v klasični dobi Rea, je neprestana dajalka vode, ki omogoča življenje in povzroča rojevanje vsega živega na zemlji. V klasični dobi je Rea rodila Zevsa, v krščanstvu pa je Marija (Ma Ria) rodila Jezusa-Boga, ki je na zemlji življenje samo.
Ista zasnova je prisotna tudi v besedah reči, recitirati, recital in podobnih, ki so v tem delu označene kot 'način nastanka govora'.