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Valery A. Choodeenov

Russian Academy of Natural Sciences,Institute of Old Slavic and Old Eurasian Civilization (IOSOE)

Yarosslavskoye shosse 14, flat 214, RU-129377 Moscow, Russia




Runica inscriptions have been observed on a Bronze Age sickle, two warrior axes, and a stone found in Slovenia as well as on a spear from Serbia. The words ČELO (face side of the sickle, avers), VERH (top), ŽALO (sting), RUS (Russ o Europe), SEKIRA (axe), VIŠKA (top), and VOJDI (enter) were recognised.


To Venetic were referred five inscriptions on the bronze tools, the drawings of which we can see in the article of A. Rant [1] (p. 189-190). The archaeologists suggested that these tools were of the Bronze Age. In connection with it comes the question about possibility of existing of Veneti in such remote a time period as the Bronze Age (3-2 thousand years BC). I suppose that it is quite possible and that in this period the language of Veneti was perfectly developed (to the stage AB or maybe A). To estimate the stage more exactly we have to read the inscriptions and see the composition of the words. It is hardly to expect here to find the main criterion; the verb TO BE in the III-rd person; in the inscriptions like these such a word is usual absent. But if our reading would be successful, we can use an additional criterion, for example the word VRH. If we can find the word in the form VRH, it will be the A-stage. If in the form VERH/VERH?, then it could be B-stage, whereas in the form VEREH/VEREH? we can estimate the C-stage. Even if these inscriptions were written in Runica, we can distinguish three types of writing in its first and second signs. The A-stage has to manifest itself in Runica signs as V?, the second B-stage as <?, the third C-stage as <?.  


The inscription on the sickle

The inscription on the sickle from Ljubljana [2] is shown in the Fig 1. We see the drawing of a sickle and in the center of it an inscription found probably by A. Rant. The signs on the sickle (No. 1) are well seen, they are known as Runica syllabographs [3] (p. 119). CHE and LO, that together give the word CHELO, FACE SIDE OF THE SICKLE, AVERS.  Such an inscription was made by the user to distinguish one side of a tool from another.




Fig. 1. My reading the inscription on the bronze sickle from Ljubljana




Other bronze tools and their inscriptions

There are some other inscriptions [1] (p. 190, Slika 2), Fig. 2. The first was written on the bronze warrior axe found in Ljubljana in 1840 [2] (p. 246, T 13/73). The inscription on it consists of 3 signs, which I can determine as Runica ones. I read them VERhHh, which means TOP. The sense of it is TOP OF WARRIOR AXE (it was made of bronze, meanwhile an absent handle has to be made of wood). Instead of VRH as in modern Slovenian, here is written VERH, as in modern Russian. Therefore we can say that the language of the inscription is not Venetic. This language is its predecessor, which belonged not to A-stage as Venetic, but to B-stage. The last sign is very interesting; its shapeveneti is between the outlook of Runica signvenetiand Glagolica sign veneti. Therefore we can suppose that Glagolica was developed from Runica (veneti>veneti >veneti) starting in the Bronze epoch.

The inscriptions 2 and 3 on Fig. 2 [2] (p. 375, T142 B/1) were made on the bronze warrior axe from Lokve. The inscription 2 has to be turned around; I read here the word ZHALO (STING). We see that there is some difference from the previous warrior axe; here the sharp edge is much narrower and it allows to warrior not to cut down the enemy, but to breach a hole in his shield or armor. Therefore here is written the name of this type arms. We see also a projection on the right side of this ZHALO; there is a small inscription here, it is a ligature. After disconnection of two signs we can read the inscription (syllabograph C is as in mirror), it sounds RUSJ (RUSS). It means that Central Europe in the Bronze Age was still (from the Palaeolithic Age) Russ = Europe. The invasion of non-Slavic tribes began in the Late bronze age.

In the cited proceedings, A. Rant [1] (p.189) tells us that the same semi-inscriptions, namely X, were found on two others warrior axes, from Čermožiše and from Zagorje. They are the same inscriptions ZHA(LO), but the second sign LO was omitted. Therefore existence of the sign X (ZHA) affirms the reading ZHALO although it was written turned dawn. 

The most interesting is the inscription on a spear top from Serbia [1] (p. 190, Slika 2 c). The first sign looks out as in the mirror, there is a ligature between the 5-th and 6-th sign. Here we can read two words, SEKIRhI VISHJKh (WARRIOR AXE TOP). The signs hI are very interesting: from the complex hI developed the Cyrrilic character ?.



Fig. 2. My reading the inscriptions on the bronze warrior axes


Inscription on the Sever's stone

In his recent book, L. Sever published i.a. a photo of a stone [4] (p. 77 and back cover) found near the village Ratje, Slovenia. On the first look the shape of the stone is like the surface of the right foot of a man (with no toes) where there is an inscription. The inscription veneti is traditional, VOJDI, that means ENTER. It is interesting to mark that in the medieval time in Russia instead of the inscription ENTRANCE on the threshold of a building was written VOJDI i.e. ENTER (the verb in imperative instead of a noun). In my book Runica and the secrets of Russ archaeology [5] (p. 285, Fig. 208), we see the same inscription VOJDI on the threshold of the Uspenski cathedral in Rjazan, veneti, but with some inclination to the left.



In Bronze Age in the territory of modern Slovenia and Serbia there existed Slavic populations which spoke a Slavic language of B- or maybe (from the similarity to modern Russian) of C-stage. In this language there were such words as CHELO, VERH, ZHALO, RUSJ, SEKIRA, VISHKA. All these words are the same as in modern Russian and similar to those in other modern Slavic languages, and the name of the land was Russ too (as in Palaeolithic time). Therefore Venetic language started from it in III-rd millenium BC and finished as Venetic (the language of A-stage) in first century AD. Now we know the very beginning of the Venetic language and approximately the time of it and during further investigation we can discover all the intermediate steps of it.




  • A Rant, Pismenstvo v Jugovzhodnih Alpah v prazgodovini (Knowledge of Writing in the Area of the Southern and Southeastern Alps in Prehistoric Times [in Slovenian]), Zbornik prve mednarodne konference “Veneti v etnogenezi Srednjeevropskega prebivalstva" (Proceedings of the First International Topical Conference "The Veneti within the Ethnogenesis of the Central-European Population"), Jutro, Ljubljana 2002, 188-195.
  • B Tržan, Depojske in posamezne najdbe bakrene in bronaste dobe na Slovenskem. Narodni muzej, Ljubljana 1995.
  • V A Choudinov, Runica and the Alphabet Writing, Zbornik mednarodnega posveta "Sledovi evropske preteklosti" (Proceedingsof the International workshop "Traces of European Past"), Jutro, Ljubljana 2004, 115-131.
  • L Sever, Iskal sem prednamce, Male Lipljene – Škocjan pri Turjaku 2003.
  • ? ? ???????, ?????? ? ????? ?????????? ????, ????, ?????? 2003.      (Choudinov V.A. Runica and the secrets of the archaeology of Rus, Veche, Moscow 2003, in Russian)




Pet napisov na bronastih predmetih. Ali so venetski?

Na nekaj predmetih iz bronaste dobe: jezičasto-ročajnem srpu, najdenem v Ljubljani, plavutasti sekiri najdeni v Ljubljanici, plavutasti sekiri iz Lokev, lovorolistni sulični osti iz Srbije ter na (nedatiranem) kamnu iz Ratja so napisi v zlogovni pisavi runici. Razbrane so besede: ČELO, VERH, ŽALO, RUS, SEKIRA, VIŠKA in VOJDI.