Korenine / Origin / Herkunft

©  korenine.si  

Korenine

 

Konferenca

 

Novice

 

Zborniki

 

O nas

 

Povezave

  Podpora   Korenine
  Origin   Conference   News   Proceedings   About us   Links   Donations  

Povzetki

 

 

MEJA MED HISTRI IN VENETI V OPISU IZ LETA 1775

Duša Krnel-Umek

Pokrajinski arhiv Koper, Kapodistriasov trg 1, SI-6000 Koper

E-mail: dusa.krnel-umek@guest.arnes.si

 

Abstract

The boundary between Histri and Veneti as described in 1775 AD

The paper deals with the questions of settlement of the original settlers, newcomers, origins of nation, identifying with nation, and the re-appearance of the same questions in ethnological and historical debates on Istra in the second half of the 18th century. Writers were interested in the characteristics of different nations and the cultural differences among them. The question of border was always a special issue and was emphasized by most writers.

Distinguished Koper citizens, Count Francesco Almergotti and Marquis Girolamo Gravisi have in their dispute in the second half of the 18th century discussed the territorial range of states and peoples living in the area of northern Adriatic in ancient times. In his work Della estensione dell'antico Illirico ovvero della Dalmazia e della primitiva situazione de Popoli Istri e Veneti (1775) on size and range of ancient Illyria or Dalmatia and on primary range of peoples such as Histri and Veneti, Almergotti utilizes detailed references from ancient authors. Contrary to him, Gravisi has determined in his work Dell' Illirico Forogiuliese (1783) that Friuli never was a part of Illyria territorially.

Almergotti´s discussion paper is a historical and ethnological description of the original settlers - Veneti and Histri - who lived in the area of northern Adriatic. Their descendants still live there, and the remains of the original culture are still preserved in their material, social and spiritual culture. Almergotti used ancient sources and religious books and papers in his descriptions. He clearly distinguished the names for countries and administrative units from specific names for nations. In order to preserve the historical memory, the knowledge and understanding of the relationships between the ancestors and their history is of prime importance. This means the knowledge of names for nations and national entities and their territorial boundaries, i.e., their ethnicity and ethnogenesis.

Gravisi´s discussion paper dwells on disputed Almergotti´s statement, where Gravisi has stated facts about the Roman rule and later Italian impacts. It deals with matters of state organisation and administration and territorial demarcation of the northern Adriatic. During the Roman rule the Latin was the principal language and at the same time the administrative language. Later, the Italian language replaced Latin. Gravisi was the official historian and wrote only the history of foreign conquerors and rulers of the territory.

 

Povzetek

Vprašanje poselitve, staroselcev in prišlekov, izvira naroda in narodne pripadnosti se je v etnoloških in zgodovinskih delih o Istri začelo ponovno pojavljati v drugi polovici 18. stoletja. Pisce so zanimale značilnosti narodov in razlike med njimi. Posebna pozornost pa je bila namenjena vprašanju mej.

Ugledna koprska meščana grof Francesco Almerigotti in markiz Girolamo Gravisi sta v polemiki v drugi polovici 18. stoletja razpravljala o razširjenosti držav in ljudstev, ki so živela na severnem Jadranu v starem veku. Almerigotti je leta 1775 pisal v delu Della estensione dell'antico Illirico ovvero della Dalmazia, e della primitiva situazione de Popoli Istri, e Veneti (O razširjenosti antičnega Ilirika oziroma Dalmacije in prvotni razširjenosti ljudstev Histrov in Venetov) s podrobnimi navedbami antičnih piscev. Gravisi pa je v delu Dell' Illirico forogiuliese (1789) dokazoval, da Furlanija ni bila nikoli del Ilirika.

Almerigottijeva razprava je zgodovinski in etnološki opis staroselcev - Venetov in Histrov, ki so živeli na severnem Jadranu. Njihovi nasledniki še danes živijo tu. Ostanki njihove prvotne kulture - prežitki - so še sedaj ohranjeni v gmotni, družbeni in duhovni kulturi.

Almerigotti je pri svojih opisih uporabljal antične vire in cerkveno zgodovino. Jasno je ločil splošna imena za vladavine in upravne enote od posebnih imen za narode. Za ohranitev zgodovinskega spomina je pomembno poznavanje povezave s predniki in njihovo zgodovino. To pa pomeni tudi poznavanje imena za narodno skupnost in njeno ozemeljsko razširjenost, kar pomeni tudi poznavanje etnologije, še posebej etnogeneze.

Gravisijeva razprava je odgovor na Almerigottijeve trditve. V svoji razpravi je navajal vire in dela, ki pišejo o rimski nadvladi in poznejših italijanskih vplivih. Pisal je predvsem o zgodovinskih podatkih, to pomeni o državni ureditvi in državni upravi ter o zemljepisnih imenih območij. S tujo oblastjo je prevladal najprej latinski potem pa italijanski uradni jezik na tem prostoru. Gravisi je pisal »uradno« zgodovino, ki so jo pisali zmagovalci in nosilci državne oblasti, tujci na zasedenem ozemlju.

Tako sta nastajali in nastajata tudi dve zgodovini: narodna in državna. Eno so pisali nosilci narodnega spomina, drugo nosilci oblasti in državnih institucij.

 

Korenine

ETRUSCANS, VENETI AND Slovenes - A GENETIC PERSPECTIVE

J. Skulj

The Hindu Institute of Learning, Toronto, Canada; Tel: 416/651-1117

E-mail: jskulj@hotmail.com

 

Abstract

Frequencies and age estimates of the mtDNA haplogroups that occur in Europe reveal common genetic substratum characteristics. The age estimates of the haplogroups and their major sub-clusters in Slovenes and other populations of Europe, show that the Slovenian weighted average age is ~24,400 ± 2,700 years versus ~24,600 ± 2,800 years for the European average, making the Slovenian lineages close to the European average in age. Slovenes also have at 17%, a relatively high percentage of U4 and U5; both recognized as Upper Paleolithic, largely European varieties of mtDNA, whereas, the European average is 12 %. Therefore, it should be of no surprise that genetic affinities are found between present day Slovenes and the skeletal remains of the ancient Etruscan nobles from their necropolises. Of the ‘Etruscan’ skeletal remains, the ~2,500 year old ones from Adria, show the closest genetic relationship with the extant Slovenes. Four out of five i.e. 80% of the Venetic skeletons have mitochondrial sequences found in the Balkans and now 20 % of Slovenes have lineages in common with them. Thus the genetic results agree with the Continuity Theory and the Slovenian version of it, known as the Venetic theory, which maintains that Slovenes are indigenous to their lands and that ancient Veneti and Slovenes have a historical connection. Adria, which is located in the present day Veneto in Italy, was part of the Roman province of Venetia et Histria during the Roman era, as was most of the present day Slovenia. There is also a genetic similarity between 6,000 to 14,000 year old skeletal remains from eastern Alps and the present day Slovenes indicating a degree of genealogical continuity from Neolithic to the present day.

 

Povzetek

Etruščani, Veneti in Slovenci: genetski vidik

Genetske primerjave Slovencev z drugimi narodi Evrope kažejo, da segajo genetske korenine Slovencev globoko v daljno preteklost, saj je povprečna starost genetskih skupin podedovanih po materi, pri Slovencih ~24 400 ± 2 700 let, kar je zelo blizu evropskemu povprečju, ki je 24 600 ± 2 800 let. Pri Slovencih je tudi navzočih 17% takozvanih evropskih genetskih zaznamovalcev U4 in U5, ki izvirajo iz zgodnje stare kamene dobe, medtem ko je evropsko povprečje 12%. Zato ni tako presenetljivo, da je tudi precejšna genetska sorodnost med današnjimi Slovenci in antičnimi prebivalci Evrope. Genetske primerjave okostnjakov iz Etrurije ter Venetije z današnjimi Slovenci kažejo na te znatne sorodnosti. Primerki so vzeti od okostnjakov njihovih veljakov iz grobnic, nastalih med 1. in 7. st. pr. Kr. V te primerjave je vključenih 5 okostnjakov iz mesta Adria, ki je sedaj v pokrajini Veneto - v rimski dobi pa je bila Adria v provinci Venetia et Histria. Izmed etruščanskih in venetskih primerkov so genetsko najbližji Slovencem prav ti ~2400 let stari okostnjaki iz mesta Adria; kar 4 od 5 (80%) ima genetske vrste, ki jih sedaj najdejo na Balkanu. Sedaj ~20% Slovencev nosi genetske vrste, ki so prisotne pri ~2500 let starih okostnjakih iz mesta Adria. Tako se genetski podatki skladajo s teorijo kontinuitete na ozemlju Slovenije in podpirajo Venetsko teorijo, ki zagovarja sorodnost Slovencev in antičnih Venetov. Genetska sorodnost pa obstoja tudi med današnjimi Slovenci in 6000 do 14 000 let starimi okostji iz vzhodnih Alp, kar tudi dokazuje genetsko nepretrganost med Slovenci in antičnimi prebivalci okrog Alp.

 

Korenine

IZUM KOLESA GIBALO NAPREDKA

Vinko Vodopivec

Pot na Drenikov vrh, Ljubljana, Slovenija

E-mail: Vinko.Vodopivec@familia.si

 

Abstract

The invention of the wheel as the impetus to progress

We learn about prehistory mostly from archaeological remains. There are in Slovenia several noteworthy remains, the Paleolithic drawings [not as yet officially acknowledged], Upper Paleolithic bone whistle, Mesolithic dugout canoe and Neolithic carriage. The drawings show the feelings of our ancestors, when Homo sapiens Neanderthalensis conjured with drawings on stone tools his cultural and religious predilections. The whistle is very important for understanding of the culture and social circumstances at the beginning of the Homo sapiens sapiens period; he knew how to appreciate his own music and social amusement with music. The dugout canoe was for our ancestors the principal means of water transportation. Navigable waterways have been used for transportation of goods since prehistoric times. However, the invention of the wheel and the carriage with wheels is still more important for the understanding of the development of that period, indicating a denser settlement, a more regulated economy, increased socialization and building of roads.

Transportation routes were already an important means of development in the Stone Age. They made possible the exchange of a variety of goods, including raw materials for making of jewellery, materials for preparation of ceremonial colours, and later, products made from metal. The oldest known transportation route in Slovenia was the well-known Amber Road, which connected the northern Adriatic Sea with the Baltic Sea. The Slovenian lands are in all of central Europe geographically the most easily traversable in the directions of the Adriatic, Po River basin, Pannonia and the Baltic. For this reason there has been in Slovenian territory since the earliest times an exchange of goods transported on waterways and on more or less established roads. Roads have been present since ancient times, suggesting good road-building skills of our ancestors long before the arrival of the Romans, who in the main improved the existing roads, and built only a few new ones for military use. It has been established that there was among Slovenes in ancient times a form of community known as “španovija,” which was led by a “špan – mayor,” who took care of common needs, among them the building of fortified settlements and roads. It is also known that Romans took over the knowledge of art and building from their neighbours Etruscans and Veneti, both of whom are now considered of Slavic origin.

 

Povzetek

O prazgodovini na naših tleh nam največ povedo ostaline od katerih izstopajo morebitne paleolitske risbe, kamenodobna piščal, mezolitski deblak ali drevak in eneolitski voz. Morebitne prastare risbe nam kažejo občutje naših prednikov že v stari kameni dobi, ko si je z risbo na kamnitem orodju pričaral svoje umetniško ali religiozno nagnjenje. Piščal je izjemno pomembna za razumevanje kulturnega in družabnega okolja v času začetka Homo sapiens sapiensa, ki je znalo prisluhniti lastni glasbeni pobudi in družabnemu razvedrilu ob glasbi. Plovne poti so služile transportu dobrin že od pradavnine, zato je najdeni čoln deblak dokaz o stalni in živahni transportni dejavnosti naših prednikov. Iznajdba kolesa in vozila s kolesi pa je še pomembnejša za uvid v tedanjo razvojno stopnjo, ki kaže na nujnost gostejše poselitve, umnega gospodarstva, povečano socializacijo in gradnjo cest.

Prometne poti so bile že v kameni dobi vedno eden najpomembnejših gibal razvoja, saj so nudile izmenjavo dobrin, zlasti nakita in materialov za pripravo obrednih barv in kasneje kovinskih izdelkov. Najstarejša znana prometnica na slovenskem je znamenita Jantarska cesta, ki je povezovala zgornji Jadran z Baltikom. Lega slovenskega ozemlja je v vsej srednji Evropi reliefno najbolj prehodna v smereh Jadrana in Baltika ter Padske nižine in Panonije, zato so preko naših krajev v vseh časih potekale izmenjave dobrin, ki so se tovorile po vodnih poteh in po bolj ali manj utrjenih cestah. Cesta so prisotne že iz pradavnine, naši predniki pa so gradili dobre ceste že daleč pred prihodom Rimljanov, ki so obstoječe ceste večinoma izboljšali in le nekatere vojaške ceste zgradili na novo. Rimljani so prevzeli znanje na področju umetnosti in na področju graditeljstva od Etruščanov, ki so izvorno slovenetskega porekla in Venetov, ki so bili sosedi Etruščanov. Pri nas je izpričana oblika skupnosti španovija, ki jo je vodil špan in je skrbela za skupne potrebe, to je za gradnjo utrjenih gradišč in za gradnjo cest.

 

Korenine

IMENA PRIČAJO

Ivan Tomažič

Bennogasse 21, A-1080 Wien, Austria

 

Abstract

The names testify

Our distant forbears left us a number of footmarks. Following them, we can recognize many details of their life. Archaeologists discovered most of these footmarks, among them the Urnfields, which are of special importance in central Europe. Since most of these are in the province of Veneto, Italy, where Veneti were indisputably resident at the time, we can conclude that the numerous Urnfields in Slovenia are also a testimony of Venetic culture. Connected with the Urnfields in Veneto are Venetic inscriptions; some of these have been found also in Slovenia. Inasmuch as the inscriptions are understood only with the help of the Slovenian language, we can see in them their ancient origin. Yet older evidence of the language used in central Europe are numerous names, which survived to the present. Their ancient origin can be recognized through certain geographical demarcations. The earliest residents did not need specific names. For them, the body of water by which they lived was simply Water, and their river was River. This type of naming is in central Europe found most often in the Slovenian language area. They are therefore a testimony regarding the ancient origins of Slovenian language in Europe.

 

Povzetek

Naši davni predniki so nam zapustili številne sledi, po katerih lahko spoznamo  marsikaj o njihovem življenju. Največ takih sledi odkrivajo arheologi. Poseben pomen imajo v srednji Evropi žarna grobišča. Ker je teh največ v Benečiji, kjer so takrat nesporno živeli Veneti, lahko sklepamo, da so prav tako številna žarna grobišča v Sloveniji pričevanje venetske kulture na našem ozemlju. Z žarnimi grobišči v Benečiji so povezani številni venetski napisi, ki jih je nekaj tudi v Sloveniji. Ker so ti napisi razumljivi le s pomočjo slovenskega jezika, lahko spoznamo v njih njihovo starodavnost. Še starejša pričevanja o jeziku prvotnih Srednjeevropejcev so številna imena, ki so se obdržala do naših dni. Njihovo starodavnost spoznamo v tem, da so identična z neko geografsko danostjo. Najstarejši prebivalci niso potrebovali posebnih imen. Zanje je bila voda, ob kateri so bivali, pač Voda. In njihova reka je bila Reka. Takih poimenovanj je v srednji Evropi največ v slovenskem jeziku. Torej so taka imena prave sledi, ki pričajo o starodavnosti slovenskega jezika v Evropi.

 

Korenine

 

JAT (Ѣ) U SLOVENSKOM I OSTALIJEM SLOVJENSKIM JEZICIMA KAO RAZLIKOVNI ELEMENAT U SVJETLOSTI ISTORIZMA, MONOGENEZE I POLIGENEZE

Vojislav P. Nikčević

 

Abstract

Jat (ѣ°) in the Slovenian and other Slavic languages as the distinguishing element in view of historicism, monogenism and polygenism

Jat (or Yat) is the focal problem of the Slovenian and Slavic historical linguistics and the comparative grammar of the Slavic languages. In these traditional linguistic disciplines it is a sound or a diphthong that evolved from the monogenetic (monocentric) neo-grammarians’ concepts, deriving from the Indo-European vowel ē and the diphthongs o, a, ā), while its pre-Slovenian (Slovene) pronunciation has remained unknown. This paper offers a detailed analysis and evaluation of different and very inconsistent and hypothetical views of linguists dealing with this particularly complex issue in the Slovenian and other Slavic languages, which represents their most important structural and typological feature in the light of historicism, monogenesis and polygenesis. Taking into consideration the fact that sounds are the smallest phonetic units and that phonemes are the smallest phonological units which can not be divided and analyzed further, jat was neither in Slovenian nor in any other Slavic language considered a sound or diphthong which developed mono-genetically (mono-centrally) by splitting into the numerous Slavic and Slovenian reflexes as its constituent parts. On the basis of the actual facts interpreted in a structural manner, it has been scientifically confirmed that jat was just a letter, a sign or grapheme, one of the units of the Old Slavonic Glagolithic, Cyrillic and other Slavic alphabets. It was used to denote different phonetic and phonemic pronunciation values of the variable sound and phoneme j during the encounters, connections and relations with other sounds and phonemes, during which it transformed into another sounds and phonemes, in some cases it has disappeared and in some it was preserved. The related Indo-European vowel ē and the diphthongs o, a (o, a) in those words in which they originate, represent the ablaut, and its so-called numerous reflexes represent simple gradation (alternants), which arise, poly-genetically (poly-centrally) to substitute each other with the purpose to achieve higher mobility and elasticity within their linguistic systems.

 

Sažimak

Naučno razrješenje izuzetno složenog i kompleksnog pitanja što je jat u isto­ri­jskoj lingvistici i uporednoj gramatici slovjenskijeh jezika je fundamentalni prob­lem slovenistike i slavistike uopšte. To zbog toga što su njegove izvorne vrijednosti naj­značajniji strukturalni i tipološki razlikovni elementi u slovenskome i ostalijem slo­vjenskim jezicima. Sagledavajući ga u svjetlosti istorizma, monogeneze i poli­ge­ne­ze, u ovome radu pobija se njegovo monogenetsko (monocentrično) poimanje kao gla­sa izvedenog iz indoevropskog ē i dvoglasnika o, a, (ō, ā). Pošto se glasovi i fonemi ne cijepaju, jat je samo slovo, znak ili grafem u svijem pismima kojim se u vidu alternacija (alternanti) kao zamjenika označavaju različite izgovorne vrijednosti glasa i fonema j kad se u suodnosima s ostalijem glasovima i fonemima pretvara u druge glasove i foneme, kad se gubi i kad opstoji kao poligenetski (policentrično) nastale.

 

Povzetek

Znanstvena razrešitev zamotanega vprašanja, kaj je jat v zgodovinskem jezikoslovju in primerjalni slovnici slovanskih jezikov, je temeljno vprašanje slovenistike in slavistike nasploh. To pa zaradi tega, ker so njegove prvotne vrednosti najpomembnejši strukturni in tipološki razlikovalni element v slovenskem in drugih slovanskih jezikih. Gledano nanj z vidika historizma, monogeneze in poligeneze, v tem delu zavračam njegovo monogenetsko (monocentrično) razumevanje kot glasu, izvedenega iz indoevropskega ē in dvoglasnikov o, a, (ō, ā). Ker se glasovi in fonemi ne cepijo, je jat samo črka, znak ali grafem v vseh pisavah, s katerim se v okviru alternacij označujejo različne fonemske in glasovne vrednosti kombinacije spremenljivega glasu in fonema j, ko se v povezavi z drugimi glasovi in fonemi pretvarja v druge poligenetsko (policentrično) nastale glasove ali foneme (bodisi da izgine bodisi da obstane), da doseže boljšo gibkost jezika.

 

Korenine
 

LINGUISTIC COMPUTATIONAL ANALYSIS TO MEASURE THE DISTANCES BETWEEN ANCIENT VENETIC, LATIN, AND SLOVENIAN LANGUAGES

M. Silvestri1, Giancarlo Tomezzoli2

1 Via Faliero 16, I-37138 Verona , Italy; E-mail: marco@marcosilvestri.com

2 Zeppelinstrasse 43, D-81669 Munich, Germany; E-mail: gtomezzoli@epo.org

 

Abstract

In this paper we analyse the linguistic distances between the ancient Venetic, Latin, and Slovenian languages. The first step of the work consisted of the construction of three electronic language corpuses:

- The Venetic Language Database (VLD), comprising all the Venetic inscriptions in the works of Pellegrini&Prosdocimi, Marinetti, and other Internet sources;

- The Latin Language Database (LLD), comprising works of the Latin writers: Plautus, Cato, Terence, Cicero, Caesar, Vergil, Propertius, active in the period 300 – 0 BC, a period in which the Latin and the Venetic languages were spoken practically independently;

- The Slovenian Language Database (SLD), comprising the texts of the most ancient Slovenian manuscripts: the Brižinski spomeniki (Freisinger Denkmäler I-III), the Rateški rokopis (Ratetischer Handschrift), the Stiški rokopis (Sitticher Handschrift), the Starogorski rokopis (Handschrift von Castelmonte).

Mainly because the subdivision in words, the pronunciation, the linguistic evolution, the exact meaning of the punctuation rules of the Venetic are unknown, the techniques for calculating the linguistic distances used in recent publications by Nerbonne, Kessler, Heeringa, Kruskal, and Vieregge are not applicable. Therefore, we developed a simple and direct method for evaluating said linguistic distances. Using the Euclidean distance algorithm, within the limit of the corpuses considered, we were able to calculate the linguistic distances between the ancient Venetic, Latin, and Slovenian. Our calculations indicate that Venetic has a Euclidean distance closer to the Slovenian (1.809) than to the Latin (5.295). This appears to disprove the Lejeune’s statement that “This language (the Venetic) is “Italic” and … closer to the Latin than any other language”, and appears to confirm that Bor was right in setting forth that similarities between Venetic and modern Slovenian, its surviving dialects and all Slovenian archaisms, can be used for interpreting the Venetic inscriptions. This would confirm the hypothesis set out by Šavli, Bor and Tomažič, that the Venetic in Veneto province, Italy, rapidly disappeared due to romanization, while Slovenian preserved part of the Venetic.

 

Povzetek

Jezikoslovna računalniška analiza meri razdalje med nekdanjim venetskim, latinskim in slovenskim jezikom

V tem delu ugotavljava jezikovne razdalje med nekdanjo venetščino, latinščino in slovenščino. Najprej sva ustvarila tri elektronske jezikovne zbirke:

- Venetsko, ki vsebuje vse venetske napise iz del Pellegrinija in Prosdocimija ter Marinettijeve in raznih internetnih virov;

- Latinsko, ki vsebuje dela naslednjih latinskih piscev: Plautus, Cato, Terence, Cicero, Caesar, Vergil, Propertius, ki so delovali med 300 – 0 pr. Kr., ko so latinščino in venetščino govorili še neodvisno;

- Slovensko, ki vsebuje najstarejša slovenska besedila, kot so: Brižinski spomeniki, Rateški rokopis, Stiški rokopis ter Starogorski rokopis.

Tehnike, ki so jo nedavno uporabili Nerbonne, Kessler, Heeringa in Vieregge, nisva mogla uporabiti, ker delitev na besede, izgovarjava, jezikovni razvoj in pravi pomen pik v venetščini še niso znani. Zato sva razvila enostavno metodo za oceno teh jezikovnih razdalj. S pomočjo evklidskega algoritma razdalj sva iz gradiva v teh zbirkah izračunala jezikovne razdalje med venetščino, latinščino in slovenščino. Izračun kaže, da je po teh razdaljah venetščina bliže slovenščini (1,809) kot latinščini (5,295). To spodbija Lejeunovo trditev, da "je venetščina italski jezik in ... bliže latinščini kot katerikoli drug jezik". Videti je, da je imel Bor prav, ko je izpostavil, da podobnosti venetščine s slovenščino, njenimi narečji in starinskostmi lahko uporabimo za razumevanje venetskih napisov. To bi tudi potrjevalo hipotezo Šavlija, Bora in Tomažiča, da je venetščina v sedanji italijanski pokrajini Veneto hitro izginila zaradi romanizacije, medtem ko je slovenščina obdržala dele venetščine.

 

Korenine

PRIMERJAVA SODOBNIH EVROPSKIH, INDOEVROPSKIH IN NEKATERIH STARIH JEZIKOV

Vinko Vodopivec

Pot na Drenikov vrh, Ljubljana, Slovenija

E-mail: Vinko.Vodopivec@familia.si

 

Abstract

Comparison of Modern European, Indo-European, and Some Ancient Languages

The motivation for my work in this field came from the research of Indo-European languages as presented by a computer system on developmental biology, which included 87 languages with 2,449 words. The researchers have tried to answer the question regarding the origins of present-day Indo-European languages. Presented are the main language groups: Slavic with 16 languages, Germanic with 15 languages, and Latin with 16 languages. There is also the Irish-Welsh-Breton group; the Greek group includes the classical Greek, and the Albanian group is connected to the Indo-Iranian group. Some results in this study are not entirely convincing, especially in regard to Slavic languages. Particularly noticeable are the dates of their formation: they are considerably later than those for the rest of the languages. Also puzzling in this research of Indo-European languages is that the oldest two languages of the old world are not included; that is, the Sanskrit and the older Vedic Sanskrit could have clarified the early linguistic developments. Also missing is the comparison of the ancient Egyptian language, which must have had considerable influence on the development of ancient cultures and their languages, including the Latin, which has had a far greater influence on the changes of languages of the time than the ancient Greek.

The basis for my comparative study of different languages is the Slavic consonantal roots from the Ateste tablets, which show a clear separation between Slavic and other languages. The Ateste tablets are Venetic inscriptions of northern Italy from the 5th century BC. They can be read with the help of Slavic languages. From each root I utilized the first two letters and then selected Slovenian words with the largest number of derivatives; for this reason the choices are well represented in the Slovenian literary language. The chosen words were then translated into other languages and compared with one another. Comparisons and analyses of the results show good homogeneity of Slavic languages and their connection with languages of the ancient world. In this research the Slovenian language proved exceptional, with the best connections to the Vedic Sanskrit, and the most uniform connections with all Slavic languages. These results put Slavic languages farther back in time, and equalize them with other languages; in some examples a strong connection to the most ancient languages is evident. The Latin languages represent a fairly homogeneous group, but with less harmony between languages. While the Germanic group has the least homogeneity, its languages deviate from each other considerably. Especially noticeable is the deviation of the English, which could be classed as a Germano-Latin language. The Swedish deviates considerably as it has borrowed many words from the French, and a sizeable part of Slavic vocabulary. Ugro-Finnic and some ancient European languages represent a large group of European languages, which have no connection with the three main groups, and also don't have connections among themselves. These are: Finnish, Irish, Basque, Hungarian, Albanian and Romany languages.

 

Povzetek

K delu na tem področju me je spodbudila raziskava indoevropskih jezikov, izvedena na računalniškem sistemu razvojne biologije, ki je zajela 87 jezikov s 2449 zajetimi besedami. Raziskovalci so poskušali odgovoriti na vprašanja o izvoru sedanjih indoevropskih jezikov. Navedene so glavne jezikovne skupine: slovanska 16 jezikov, germanska 15 jezikov in romanska 16 jezikov. Poleg njih so še irsko-welško-bretonska skupina, nato grška skupina, ki vključuje tudi klasično grščino in albanska skupina, ki se navezuje na indijsko-perzijsko skupino. Nekateri rezultati v tej raziskavi niso dovolj prepričljivi, zlasti pri slovanskih jezikih, kjer še posebej izstopajo letnice predvidenih nastankov, ki so znatno nižje kot pri ostalih jezikih. Nerazumljivo je, da pri raziskavah indoevropskih jezikov nista zajeta najpomembnejša jezika starega sveta sanskrt in še starejši jezik Vede, bi lahko bistveno osvetlila zgodnje jezikovno dogajanje. Prav tako pogrešam primerjavo s pra-egiptovskim jezikom, ki je prav gotovo imel bistveni delež pri razvoju starih kultur in njihovih jezikov in latinščino, ki je imela prav gotovo bistvenejši vpliv na spremembe takratnih jezikov kot grščina.

Osnova za izvedeno primerjavo različnih jezikov so slovanski soglasniški koreni iz Atestinskih tablic, ki so pokazali dobro ločljivost med slovanskimi in drugimi jeziki. Atestinske tablice so venetski zapisi iz 5. stoletja pred Kristusom v sedanji severni Italiji, ki so berljivi z znanjem slovanskih jezikov. Od vsakega korena sem obdržal prvi dve črki in poiskal slovenske besede, ki so imele največje število, zato je ta izbor še dobro prisoten v slovenskem knjižnem jeziku. Izbrane besede so prevedene v druge jezike in primerjane med seboj. Primerjave in analize rezultatov kažejo na dobro homogenost slovanskih jezikov in njihovo povezavo z jeziki starega sveta. Tudi tu se izkaže slovenščina kot izjemen jezik, saj ima najboljše povezave z jezikom Ved in najbolj enakomerne povezave z vsemi slovanskimi jeziki. Taki rezultati postavljajo izvore slovanskih jezikov v bistveno zgodnejše zgodovinsko obdobje in jih s tem izenačujejo z drugimi jeziki, v nekaterih primerih pa je razvidna celo močna povezava z najstarejšimi do sedaj znanimi jeziki. Romanski jeziki predstavljajo dokaj enakomerno skupino vendar z manjšim ujemanjem jezikov. Germanska skupina je najmanjša in njeni jeziki se najmanj ujemajo. Zlasti izstopa angleščina, ki jo lahko smatramo že kot germansko –  romanski jezik. Precej odstopa tudi švedščina, ki ima velik delež francoskih besed in znaten delež slovanskega besedišča. Veliko skupino evropskih jezikov predstavljajo tudi ugrofinski in pra-stari evropski jeziki, ki nimajo značilnih povezav z navedenimi skupinami niti med seboj. To so finščina, irščina, baskovščina, madžarščina, albanščina in romščina.

 

Korenine

THE "WARRIOR" STELE FROM LEMNOS

Anthony Ambrozic

8 Lafayette Place, Thornhill, Ontario L3T 1G5, Canada

 

Abstract

A division, translation, linguistic examination, and evaluation of the "Warrior" Stele from Lemnos are presented. It appears that the artefact's character was votive rather than military, serving as a plea for a deceased's passage to paradise through enlightened belief.

 

Povzetek

"Vojščakova" stela z Lemnosa

Prikazana je razdelitev, prevod, jezikoslovna obravnava in vrednotenje napisa na steli "vojščaka" z Lemnosa. Videti je, da je ta spomenik votiven in ne vojaški, ter da služi kot prošnja za prehod umrlega, razsvetljenega v veri, v raj.

 

Korenine 

ŠTUDIJA PREČRKOVANJ IN BRANJ NAJSTAREJŠEGA VENETSKEGA NAPISA

 

Vinko Vodopivec

Pot na Drenikov vrh, Ljubljana, Slovenija

E-mail: Vinko.Vodopivec@familia.si

 

Abstract

A study of transcriptions and readings of the oldest Venetic inscription

The oldest Venetic inscription, ES 120 from the 6th century BC, is written on a bronze bowl found near Este, Italy, in 1937. Because of its age and length, the inscription inspired among Venetologists many attempts to read and understand it. Analyses of different readings clearly show that so far the endeavours of acknowledged Italian, French and German scientists are not satisfactory. They do not meet any of the established criteria for understanding the inscription. Their proposals of division of the continuous text into words, and reading and understanding it, remain on the level of unproved and implausible hypotheses. Their readings essentially differ from one another; however, what they have in common is their uniform sidestepping of the possibility of decipherment on the basis of Slavic languages. On the other hand, the division and reading of the continuous text as presented by Matej Bor (Slovenia) meets the defined criteria, although his solutions, too, could use some minor corrections and improvements. His division and translation of this text on the basis of Slavic languages shows, as is the case with other Venetic and Etruscan inscriptions deciphered by him, the presence of Slavic language roots in northern Italy and beyond, where Veneti lived. Some scientists, who despite the undeniable evidence reject the decipherment of Venetic inscriptions on the basis of Slavic languages, should prove their rejection with better translations on the basis of their preferred languages - Latin and Greek. Many translations of Venetic inscriptions deciphered with the help of Slavic languages were published in Slovenian literature; some of them, and especially the analysis of translations, were published also in the Proceedings of the conferences in the series Korenine Slovenskega naroda/ Roots of the Slovenian Nation. The translations on the basis of the Slovenian and other Slavic languages can then be reviewed and compared with translations made by other Slovenian scientists on the basis of languages of their choice, and subsequently, a scientific evaluation of correctness of both theories could be made.

 

Povzetek

Najstarejši venetski napis ES 120 iz 6. st. pr. Kr. je na dobro ohranjeni bronasti posodi, ki je bila 1937 izkopana blizu kraja Este. Zaradi svoje starosti in dolžine je med venetologi vzpodbudil več poskusov branja in razumevanja. Analiza različnih branj nedvoumno pokaže, da branja do sedaj priznanih italijanskih, francoskih in nemških venetologov niso ustrezna, saj ne izpolnjujejo nobenega postavljenega kriterija za razumevanje napisa. Njihovi predlogi delitve zveznega teksta ter branj in razumevanj navedenega napisa zato ostajajo na ravni nedokazanih in le malo verjetnih hipotez. Njihova branja so med seboj bistveno različna, zlasti pa odstopajo od branja na slovanskih osnovah. Predlog branja, ki ga je ponudil Vladimir Pavšič - Matej Bor pa nedvoumno in celo večkratno ustreza obema postavljenima hipotezama, čeprav tudi njegova rešitev zahteva nekoliko manjših popravkov, izboljšav in drugačnih pomenov besed. Kljub morebitnim izboljšavam, pa že sedanji prevodi tega napisa na slovanskih osnovah, tako kot pri drugih starih etruščanskih in venetskih zapisih, nedvoumno pričajo o naših slovanskih jezikovnih koreninah v sedanji severni Italiji, kjer so živeli Veneti, naši jezikovni predniki. Naši znanstveniki, ki kljub nespornim dokazom, zavračajo razumevanje venetskih napisov na slovanskih osnovah, naj take trditve dokažejo z boljšimi prevodi in razumevanji na drugih, po njihovem mnenju predvsem na romanskih ali grških osnovah. Mnogo prevodov venetskih napisov na slovanskih osnovah je objavljeno v znani slovenski literaturi, precej prevodov in zlasti analize prevodov pa so objavljene tudi v zbornikih Korenine slovenskega naroda. Prevode na osnovi slovenščine in drugih slovanskih jezikov se bo lahko strokovno in na enakih osnovah pregledalo in primerjalo s prevodi naših znanstvenih jezikoslovcev na drugačnih osnovah ter znanstveno preverilo pravilnost obeh teorij.

 

Korenine

FIVE INSCRIPTIONS ON BRONZE TOOLS. ARE THEY VENETIC?

Valery A. Choodeenov

Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, Institute of Old Slavic and Old Eurasian Civilization (IOSOE)

Yarosslavskoye shosse 14, flat 214, RU-129377 Moscow, Russia

E-mail: psevdoreal@mail.ru

 

Abstract

Runica inscriptions have been observed on a Bronze Age sickle, two warrior axes, and a stone found in Slovenia as well as on a spear from Serbia. The words ČELO (face side of the sickle, avers), VERH (top), ŽALO (sting), RUS (Russ º Europe), SEKIRA (axe), VIŠKA (top), and VOJDI (enter) were recognised.

 

Povzetek

Pet napisov na bronastih predmetih. Ali so venetski?

Na nekaj predmetih iz bronaste dobe: jezičasto-ročajnem srpu, najdenem v Ljubljani, plavutasti sekiri najdeni v Ljubljanici, plavutasti sekiri iz Lokev, lovorolistni sulični osti iz Srbije ter na (nedatiranem) kamnu iz Ratja so napisi v zlogovni pisavi runici. Razbrane so besede: ČELO, VERH, ŽALO, RUS, SEKIRA, VIŠKA in VOJDI.

 

Korenine

A NEW LOOK AT CLASSICAL MYTHOLOGY WITH THE HELP OF SLAVIC AND MACEDONIAN VOCABULARIES

Belchevsky O.

67 Rainier Square, Toronto, Ontario M1T 3A1, Canada

E-mail: belchevski@yahoo.ca

 

Abstract

Is there a practical meaning to classical mythology, and can it be explained and understood? The Macedonian and other Slavic languages have retained the concepts and the vocabularies to provide an explanation when analyzed and interpreted correctly. The information contained in this study is a new look at classical mythology. It brings out alternative and practical meanings for the identities of well-known classical mythological figures such as Demeter, Saturn, Pluto/Hades, Presefatta, and Zemele.

 

Povzetek

Nov pogled na klasično mitologijo ob uporabi slovanskega in makedonskega besedišča.

Ali ima klasična mitologija dejanski pomen in, ali se jo da razumeti in razložiti? Makedonski in drugi slovanski jeziki so obdržali pojme in besedišča, ki pri pravilni analizi in pravilnem tolmačenju omogočajo razlago. Podan je nov pogled na klasično mitologijo. Ta omogoča drugačne in uporabne pomene za istovetnost znanih klasičnih mitoloških oseb kot so Demetra, Saturn, Pluton/Had, Presefata in Zemela.

 

Korenine

A STUDY OF THE ORIGINS, CONNECTIONS AND MEANINGS OF THE INDO-EUROPEAN WORDS REEKA, REE, REA (RIVER) IN LANGUAGE AND MYTHOLOGY

Odyssey Belchevsky,

67 Rainier Square, Toronto, Ontario M1T 3A1, Canada

E-mail: belchevski@yahoo.ca

 

Abstract

Logical explanations of how the very existence of the river created primary language religious and social concepts are given. These are as follows:

The part of the Classical Mythology associated with and created by the river. This study gives clear explanation of the classical relation of the Goddess Rea and supreme God Zeus. Many of classical gods and their traditions were received from the ’barbarians’. The barbarians were the ancient Europeans, non-Greeks, whose speech was not understood by the Greeks.

The concept associated with the Latin words ’regio’, ’rex’, which today are present as universal words in all European languages. In English these are region, regal, rule, king, regulate - control. This is the most primary concept for establishing land division borders, control, ownership, and social structure. Over time the concept of land division and ownership evolved into the concept of kingdom and separate countries, as they are known today.

The divine existence of 'continual indiscriminant' loving and 'giving' of the River to all living creatures on earth explains one of the most fundamental Christian believes today. Mother river (Ma-rika, Ma-Rea, Maria), in Classical times Rea, is the continual giver of life-sustaining water that gives birth to all Life on Earth. In Classical times Rea gives birth to Zeus, in Christianity Maria (Ma Ria) gives birth to Christ –Jihova that is Life itself on Earth.

The concept is associated also with the words recital, recite, and their related families, which in this study is named ‘the mode of speaking concept’.

 

Povzetek

Podane so logične razlage, kako je v prvotnem jeziku že sam obstoj rek vodil v poimenovanje verskih in socialnih zasnov z besedami, izpeljanimi iz besede 'reka'. Te zasnove so:

Del klasične mitologije, ki je povezan z reko in ga je reka izzvala. To delo daje jasno razlago odnosa med boginjo Reo in vrhovnim bogom Zevsom. Mnoge bogove klasične dobe in njihovo izročilo so namreč Grki prevzeli od 'barbarov'. Ti barbari so bili prvotni Evropejci, Negrki, katerih govorice Grki niso razumeli.

Zasnove, povezane z latinskima besedama 'regio', 'rex', ki so sedaj prisotne v splošno uporabljanih besedah v vseh evropskih jezikih. V angleščini so to region, regal, rule, king, regulate. To je najstarejši pristop, kako določiti meje med zemljišči, nadzor, lastnino in socialno zgradbo družbe. Sčasoma je pristop k delitvi ozemelj in lastnine napredoval do pojma kraljestva in posameznih dežel, kot jih poznamo dandanes.

Božanski obstoj 'neprestane enakopravne' ljubezni in 'dajanja' reke vsem živim bitjem na zemlji razloži eno od najbolj osnovnih krščanskih verovanj. Mati reka (Ma-rika, Ma-Rea, Maria), v klasični dobi Rea, je neprestana dajalka vode, ki omogoča življenje in povzroča rojevanje vsega živega na zemlji. V klasični dobi je Rea rodila Zevsa, v krščanstvu pa je Marija (Ma Ria) rodila Jezusa-Boga, ki je na zemlji življenje samo.

Ista zasnova je prisotna tudi v besedah reči, recitirati, recital in podobnih, ki so v tem delu označene kot 'način nastanka govora'.

 

Korenine

3D FACIAL RECONSTRUCTION FROM A SKULL OF A MALE SUBJECT OF THE NEOLITIC SQUARE MOUTH POTTERY CULTURE OF QUINZANO (VERONA, ITALY)

M. Silvestri1, Giancarlo Tomezzoli2

1 Via Faliero 16, I-37138 Verona, Italy;E-mail: marco@marcosilvestri.com

2 Zeppelinstrasse 43, D-81669 Munich, Germany; E-mail: gtomezzoli@epo.org

 

Abstract

In this paper we used a 2D - 3D computer graphics technique to reconstruct a 3D model of the face of a Neolithic male subject belonging to the Square Mouth Pottery Culture. The skeleton and the skull of the subject were found near Quinzano (Verona, Italy) and are preserved at the Civico Museo di Storia Naturale in Verona (Veneto, Italy). Despite the skull’s bad condition, we were successful in restoring its main anthropometric facial features by designing a three-dimensional skull model, and by creating a final ray-tracing image representing the face as it may have looked when the subject was alive. The result, despite the technical limitations of our method, leaves no doubts that the subject was of European origin, and the reconstructed face appears to be very common in northern Italy and central Europe’s present-day male subjects.

 

Povzetek

3D rekonstrukcija obraza lobanje moškega pripadnika neolitske kulture posod s kvadratnim ustjem iz Quinzana (Verona, IT)

Za rekonstrukcijo 3D modela obraza neolitskega moškega, pripadnika kulture posod s kvadratnim ustjem, sva uporabila 2D - 3D računalniško grafiko. Njegovo okostje in lobanjo so našli pri kraju Quinzano (Verona – IT) in ga hranijo v Civico Museo di Storia Naturale v Veroni (Veneto – IT). Kljub temu, da je v slabem stanju, sva uspela vzpostaviti glavne antropometrične značilnosti obraza tako, da sva pripravila 3D model lobanje in končno s svetlobnim risanjem podobo, ki kaže, kako je morebiti bil videti njegov obraz, ko je bil še živ. Kljub tehničnim omejitvam najinega pristopa je videti rekonstruirani obraz podoben obrazom sedanjih moških v severni Italiji in sploh srednji Evropi.

 

Korenine

KAREL OŠTIR V LUČI TEORIJE KONTINUITETE

PRESELJEVANJA LJUDSTEV ALI KONTINUITETA

Lucijan Vuga

Lemutova 6, SI-5000 Nova Gorica

 

Abstract

Slovenian Linguist Karel Oštir in Light of the Theory of Continuity

Karel Oštir in his works outlines many of the discoveries that have led to solving the problems of paleolinguistics, especialy of the pre- and proto-Indo-Europeans so called Alarodic/Mediterraninan languages, or as he used to say – Megalithic languages, their origins and development. Firstly, it is true that Karel Oštir places his thoughts in the context of one non-precisely defined among many migration theories, but recently there are new theories of the IE origins. Oštir builds up a fascinating picture of how different IE language families have evolved from pre-IE in close contact with Alarodic/Megalithic/Mediterranian languages. The following considerations show, how we could interpret Oštir's results as intrinsicaly coherent with Alinei's Theory of continuity.

In particular are of our interest Oštir's studies: Drei vorslavisch-etruskische Vogelnamen (Three pre-Slavic-Etruscan bird-names); K predslovanski etnologiji Zakarpatja (About pre-Slavic ethnology of the Transcarpathia); Veneti in Anti (Veneti and Anti). He concluded that »it is not excluded that Anti is oldest general-Slavic term for Slavs« following development Venet/Wenet > *[W]antaib > Ant. Considering pre-Slavic bird-names for jastreb, kanja, lunj in comparison with Etruscan terms he found surprising parallelism, which could be correlated with statement of Mario Alinei: »I have to commence by clearing away one of the most absurd consequences of the traditional chronology, namely, that of the 'arrival' of the Slavs into the immense area in which they now live. The only logical conclusion can be that the southern branch of the Slavs is the oldest and that from it developed the Slavic western and eastern branches in a differing manner and perhaps at different times…Today only a minority of experts support the theory of a late migration for the Slavs… because none of the variant versions of such late settlement answers the question of what crucial factor could possibly have enabled the Slavs to have left their Bronze-Age firesides to become the dominant peoples of Europe. The south-western portion of the Slavs had always bordered on the Italic people in Dalmatia, as well as in the areas of the eastern Alps and the Po lowlands… The surmised 'Slavic migration' is full of inconsistencies. There is no 'northern Slavic language', it is rather only a variant of the southern Slavic… The first metallurgic cultures in the Balkans are Slavic… and connected with Anatolia… Slavic presence in the territory, nearly identical to the one occupied by them today, exists ever since the Stone Age… The Slavs have (together with the Greeks and other Balkan peoples) developed agriculture… agriculturally mixed economy, typically European, which later enabled the birth of the Greek, Etruscan, and Latin urbanism. Germanic peoples adopted agriculture from the Slavs… The Balkans is one of the rare regions in which a real and true settlement of human groups coming from Anatolia is proven…«  Recently on the Ljubljansko barje was found the world oldest wheel from the end of IV. millenium B.C.; on the nearby archaeology spot Divje babe was found the world oldest flute made of bone at last 45.000 years old. No far is very large necropolis of  'the Santa Lucia culture'. Upper Banjšice plateau with rich Bronze-age archaeological findings is considered by members of the SAZU - Slovenian Academy of Science and Arts, France Bezlaj and Tine Logar, as Venetic territory.

We are considering that Karel Oštir's conclusions about 'Megalithic languages' collimate with Alinei's [1] Theory of continuity.

 

Povzetek

Karel Oštir obravnava paleolingvistiko, posebej še pred- in praindoevropskih, tim. alarodskih/mediteranskih (megalitskih) jezikov, v okviru neke ne natančno opredeljene teorije preseljevanja Indoevropejcev. Najnovejša teorija kontinuitete Maria Alineija [1] in drugih pa predpostavlja, da so današnja evropska ljudstva živela že v neolitiku in morda celo že proti koncu paleolitika na istih ozemljih, kjer prebivajo danes. V luči teorije kontinuitete je potrebno proučiti dognanja Karla Oštirja, med drugim: »ni izključeno, da so Anti najstarejši splošnoslovanski izraz za Slovane«, sledeč razvoju Venet/Wenet > *[W]antaib > Ant. Obravnavajoč predslovanska ptičja imena jastreb, kanja, lunj in primerjajoč jih z etruščanskimi izrazi, je odkril močne vzporednice, zato bi morali biti Etruščani veliko dlje v Evropi, oziroma bi morali biti avtohtoni, na nek način bi pripadali Predindoevropejcem (kot dopušča Bojan Čop).

Alinei piše: »Že na začetku moram zavreči eno od najbolj absurdnih posledic tradicionalne kronologije o 'prihodu' Slovanov na ogromna ozemlja, na katerih danes živijo. Edini logični sklep je lahko ta, da je južna veja Slovanov najstarejša ter da sta se iz nje razvili zahodna in vzhodna veja Slovanov na različne načine in morda v različnih časih… Danes le manjšina strokovnjakov podpira teorijo o poznem preseljevanju Slovanov… Domnevno 'slovansko preseljevanje' je povsem nevzdržno. Slovanska prisotnost na ozemlju, ki se skoraj povsem ujema s tistim, na katerih danes živijo, je obstajala nepretrgoma od kamene dobe … Slovani so (skupaj z Grki in drugimi balkanskimi ljudstvi) razvili poljedelstvo … poljedelsko mešano gospodarstvo, značilno evropsko, ki je kasneje omogočilo rojstvo grške, etruščanske in latinske urbanizacije. Germanska ljudstva so prevzela poljedelstvo  od Slovanov …. To lahko uskladimo z nedavnimi najdbami v Sloveniji: na Ljubljanskem barju najstarejše kolo na svetu iz konca 4. tisočletja pr.n.št.; v Divjih babah najstarejša piščal na svetu, izdelana iz kosti najmanj pred 45.000 leti. V relativni bližini je slovita nekropola 'svetolucijske kulture'; in sosednjo Banjško planoto z bogatimi bronastodobnimi najdbami akademika France Bezlaj in Tine Logar smatrata za venetsko ozemlje.

Lahko sklenemo, da so ugotovitve Karla Oštirja uskladljive s teorijo kontinuitete, in eden od 'megalitskih jezikov' – predslovanščina – je bil v rabi na današnjem ozemlju Slovenije in (tudi po mnenju Alineija) na celotnem prostoru vzhodnih Alp ter v Padski nižini že od konca paleolitika.

 

Korenine

ONOMASTIKA RIMSKEGA NORIKA IN SLEDOVI NORIŠKIH IMEN V DANAŠNJEM SLOVENSKEM PROSTORU IN SOSEDSTVU

J. J. Rant

Ul. v Kokovšek 31a, SI-1231 Ljubljana, Slovenija

 

Abstract

Onomastics of the Roman Noricum and Traces of Norican Names in Contemporary Slovenia and Neighbouring Countries

The archaeology, history, economy, culture, religion, mythology and also the onomastics of Regnum Noricum and later of the Roman province of Noricum as well as of the neighbouring provinces Pannonia, Illyricum, Dalmatia and Rhaetia, have been extensively studied, and a large opus of scientific and other literature, both domestic and foreign, is available. A treasure of knowledge on history, culture, economy and data collected on epigraphy, numismatics and onomastics of Regnum Noricum and Roman Noricum, collected before the year 1974, is the now classical book Noricum by Alföldy [1]. A collection of recent studies on Noricum has been published in the special issue of Situla [2]. Alföldy himself states that the ethnic structure of Roman Noricum is mixed and its ethnogenesis unresolved. According to him, the original Venetic and Illyrian (in the territory of present-day Slovenia) ethnic substrate was overpowered by the invading Celts, which were later Romanised, coexisting with them for several centuries were newcomers from Italy and various other parts of the Roman empire. Alföldy is not an adherent of the autochthonistic theory of ethnogenesis and he is aware only of the Romanised Veneti, Illyrians and Celts. He states there are 626 different (840 with variations) Roman or Romanised Celtic personal names (gentillitia) His collection is a precious treasure of linguistic data worthy of study. Out of this impressive number of names he is able to specify only nine different personal names of Venetic origin and only 14 Illyrian names. However, he is of the opinion that for about one third of the Norican names one could trace the roots to the indigenous population, which itself is in contradiction with such small number of identified Venetic and Illyrian names and the supposed indigenous ethnicity of Noricum.

In this paper we present a linguistic analysis of Norican personal names based on comparison of etymology of the names, assuming their Celtic or Proto-Slavic origin. A comparison is made of Norican names with the contemporary names and toponyms found in present-day Slovenia and the neighbouring countries (e.g., Carnia, Alta Badia, Dalmatia) and their approximate geographical distribution as revealed by significant preserved traces of the ancient onomastics. For approx. 60-70 of the presumed Celtic names, one can identify Proto-Slavic linguistic roots, having the same meaning as the corresponding contemporary Slovenian names. Among the Celtic deities the gods Belin (or Belenus), Belestis (Velestis) and most strikingly the god of fate Smert(ius) apparently have Proto-Slavic linguistic roots. The vast majority of other names are Roman or names of Romanised peoples of Italy or other provinces of the Roman Empire. The results of the present study put into question the hitherto generally acknowledged view by historical sciences about the exclusivity of Celtic ethnicity of ancient Noricum. In the future, a study of similar analysis should also be carried out for the onomastics of the Roman Dalmatia, Illyricum, Rhaetia, Vindelicia and Gallia.

 

[1]. G Alföldi, 1974, NORICUM, Reutlage and Kegan Ltd., London, Boston 1974

2. The Autonomous Towns of Noricum and Pannonia, SITULA, 2002, 40, NORICUM, Eds. M Šašel Kos, P Scherrer, Narodni muzej, Ljubljana

 

Povzetek

Imenoslovje (onomastika) Noriškega kraljestva in predvsem kasnejše rimske province Norik ter sosednje Panonije, Ilirika ter Dalmacije je dokaj dobro poznano. O arheologiji, zgodovini, kulturi, ekonomsko-socialnih prilikah in seveda o imenoslovju noriških pokrajin obstaja bogata domača in tuja strokovna literatura. Znanje in zakladnico podatkov o Noriku, zbranih do l. 1974, predstavlja sedaj že klasična, monumentalna pregledna študija literarno-zgodovinskih pričevanj, epigrafskih, onomastičnih, arheoloških in numizmatičnih izsledkov svetovno znanega arheologa Géze Alföldija [1]. Zbirka novejših študij o Noriku je bila objavljena v almanahu SITULA 40 [2]. Alföldi sam ugotavlja, da je etnična struktura rimskega Norika mešana in tudi etnogeneza zelo nejasna. Po njegovem naj bi prvotni venetski in na jugu (sedanja Slovenija) ilirski staroselski substrat prekrili Kelti, ki so se kasneje romanizirali in ob katerih sočasno sobivajo tudi prišleki iz Italije in drugih delov rimskega cesarstva. Alföldi seveda ni pristaš avtohtonistične teorije etnogeneze in govori samo o Venetih (romaniziranih), Ilirih in Keltih. Vsekakor pa predstavlja dragocen vir podatkov njegova zbirka 626 različnih (skupaj z različicami 840), po njegovem keltskih, osebnih (rodbinskih) imen. Navaja tudi 29 imen keltskih božanstev. Temu pa pridaja samo 9 različnih venetskih osebnih in 14 ilirskih imen. Vsekakor je mnenja, da je od vseh imen v Noriku samo slaba tretjina takih imen, ki imajo koren v staroselstvu. To pa je v nasprotju s tako majhnim naborom venetskih in ilirskih imen. in s trditvijo o staroselski poselitvi z Veneti in Iliri.

V tem delu obravnavamo jezikovno analizo osebnih imen Norika na osnovi primerjave ustreznosti etimologije imena izhajajoč enkrat iz keltske skupine in drugič iz slovanske skupine jezikov. Noriška imena tudi primerjamo z sodobnimi slovenskimi priimki in priimki najdenih na področju sosednjih dežel (Karnija, Ladinija, Dalmacija). Pri številnih dozdevno keltskih imenih ugotavljamo njihovo očitno podobnost ali celo enakost z sodobnimi priimki in toponimi na področju Slovenije in sosedstva. Podobnost z sedanjimi slovenskimi priimki najdemo tako vsaj pri približno 60-70 navedenih dozdevno keltskih imen. Tudi pri imenih keltskih božanstev najdemo imena, ki zvenijo znano slovensko. Poleg Belina (Belena) izstopa ime boga usode Smert(-ius)a. Pri večini priimkov pa gre očitno za osebna imena rimskega porekla ali porekla romaniziranega prebivalstva Severne Italije in drugih delov rimskega cesarstva. Ugotovitve postavljajo pod vprašaj v zgodovinski stroki do sedaj uveljavljeno mnenje o t.i. izključno »keltski« naravi prebivalstva v Noriku in pri nas. V bodoče bi bilo treba napraviti podobno analizo imenoslovja še rimskih provinc Britanije, Galije in predvsem Dalmacije in Panonije.

 

Korenine

SORODNOSTI MED STAROBRITANSKIMI IN SLOVENSKIMI

PALEO-ETNIČNIMI ZNAČILNOSTMI

Andrej Rant

Ljubljana, Slovenija

 

Abstract

On the affiliation between the Old British and Slovenian paleo-ethnic characteristics

Several similarities in the to some extent still preserved old pagan believes, old national habits, customs, myths and linguistic traces reveal the common ethnic origin of the prehistoric settlements on the British isles and the ancient settlers in the region of Alps. The worship of the god Sun is still preserved in the old festivals and customs of the St. Lucia feast, Christmas, St. Stephen, New Year, St. George and the »svečnica« – Celtic Imbolc or St. Bridget festival. Customs to set festival fires on May the 1st, June the 23rd, on the festival of St. John also derive from the old pagan traditions. The worship of trees, sacred wells and caves is preserved in several pagan myths and legends and survived in the form of Christian conversion. The ancient famous legend of the king Arthur is also present in some traces in the territory of Slovenia, e.g. in the form of tale of Peter Klepec. The ceremony of institution of the Carinthian dukes is similar to those in Britain and in some aspects also to the coronation of the kings of Scotland. The ancient tribe democracy and the ancestral law have similarities in both countries. One can assume that these traditions derive from the common origin. Further, some toponyms from Britain show resemblance with toponyms in Slovenia. One can identify quiet a number of English words that have the same roots as corresponding Slovenian word. The relationship is evident in particular in the names of animals, trees, plants, tools and some basic verbs. A clue to understand all these similarities can be a fact, that the most area of the Central Europe and the British Isles has been settled in the 3rd millenium BC by the same proto-population of prehistoric hunters.

 

Povzetek

Številne podobnosti v starih izročilih, ljudskih navadah,šegah in verovanju ter jezikovnih sorodnostih kažejo na to, da je etnični izvor britanskih staroselcev in staroselcev na področju Jugovzhodnih Alp skupen. To dokazujejo stara poganska verovanja, ki so ohranjena v ljudskih običajih na Slovenskem. Kult sonca je pri Slovencih ohranjen v ljudskih običajih v okviru praznovanj krščanskih praznikov. Poganska praznovanja so dobila večinoma krščansko preobleko. Takšni prazniki in običaji so na primer praznik Sv.Lucije, kurjenje božičnih kresov, koledovanje, praznovanje zaščitnika konj Sv. Štefana, ulivanje svinca za Novo leto, pustovanje s sežigom pusta, praznovanje Svečnice, kurjenje kresov za prvi maj in ob letnem solsticiju, na praznik Sv. Janeza Krstnika. Podobni običaji so se ohranili tudi na Britanskem otočju. Čaščenje dreves, studencev in jam je bilo prisotno tako pri staroselcih v Britaniji kot na Slovenskem. Mnogi poganski prazniki, miti in legende so zagrnjeni v preobleko krščanstva. Stara izročila o kralju Arturju so prisotna tudi v sledovih legend tudi na Slovenskem (n.pr. roka iz vode, Peter Klepec).

Obred ustoličevanja slovenskih vojvod na Gosposvetskem polju ima svoje vzporednice v obredu ustoličenja škotskih kraljev. Na skupen jezikoven izvor kaže tudi določena podobnost v delu besednega zaklada sedaj živečih etnij na omenjeniih področjih. Tu gre zlasti za izraze, ki so v uporabi že od pradavnine. To so na primer imena nekaterih živali, rastlin, osnovnih predmetov ter skupni koreni osnovnih besed. Vse to kaže na to, da je bil pretežni del osrednje Evrope, kakor tudi Britansko otočje od 3. Tisočletja dalje poseljen z ljudstvom, ki je prešlo iz lovsko-nabiralniško nomadskega na poljedelsko-živinorejski način življenja.

 

Korenine

ISTOIZVORNE SWADESHEVE BESEDE INDO-EVROPSKIH JEZIKOV V BAZI I. DYEN IN PRIMER UPORABE V FILOGENETIČNI LINGVISTIKI

Jože J.Rant

Ul.v Kokovšek 31a , 1231 Ljubljana, Slovenija

 

Abstract

Cognate Swadesh Words of Indo-European Languages in the Data Base of I. Dyen and an Example of Linguistic Philogenetics

Traditional linguistic methods to reconstruct the Proto-Indo-European (IE) language, to determine the branching of the IE language tree and to estimate the age of branching are the comparative method, linguistic paleontology and classical glottochronology (lexicostatistics), founded in 1952 by Morris Swadesh. Recently, philogenetic and cladistic computational methods, already successfully proved for similar genetic tree analysis in biology and genetics, have been introduced also into quantitative linguistic studies. Modern phylogenetic and cladistic linguistic methods are based on the Swadesh set of basic 100-200 words for some selected general concepts or objects to be present almost in every language, and which are considered to be very stable during the evolution of language over the longer period. The cognate words belonging to a group of related languages, which are similar regarding their common root, phonetics and semantics, form distinctive classes of cognates. In this paper we shall present the database of Swadesh cognates for 95 IE speech varieties (languages and dialects) compiled by Dyen et al. [1]. A critical review of the Slovenian cognates will be given. As a recent example of the successful application of a phylogenetic linguistic method we are presenting the results of the computed ages of branching of IE languages (including Slovenian) given by Gray and Atkinson [2]. Their results confirm the Anatolian theory of C. Renfrew about an earlier time (~9000 years BP) of the beginning of branching of the primeval IE language.

 

1. I Dyen, J B Kruskal, P Black, An Indoeuropean Classification: A Lexicostatistical Experiment, Transactions Am. Phil. Soc. 1992, 82/5

2. R D Gray, Q D Atkinson, Language Tree divergence times support the Anatolian theory of Indo-European Origin, Nature, 27 Nov. 2003, 426, 435-439

 

Povzetek

V zadnjem času se za rekonstrukcijo proto-indoevropskega (IE) jezika, za določanje razvejitve jezikovnega drevesa in za približno oceno starosti posameznih razvejitev poleg tradicionalnih lingvističnih metod, kot so komparativna metoda, lingvistična paleontologija in klasična glotokronologija (leksikostatistika), uveljavljajo računalniške lingvistične metode, osnovane na filogenetskih metodah iz biologije in genetike. Moderne filogenetske in kladistične lingvistične metode slone na uporabi nabora 100 do 200 besed, ki ga je l. 1952 sestavil Morris Swadesh, utemeljitelj glotokronologije. To so besede za izbrane osnovne pojme in predmete, ki naj bi se tekom časa evolucije jezikov zelo malo spreminjale in ki bi se jih za sorodne jezike dalo urediti v skupine istoizvornih besed (cognates) glede na njihovo podobnost v korenu, fonetiki in semantiki. V tem prispevku bomo predstavili bazo istoizvornih besed za 200 Swadeshevih besed 95 indo-evropskih jezikov, Dyen in sod. [1]. Podali bomo kritični pregled istoizvornih besed za slovenski jezik. Predstavili bomo rezultate izračuna ocene razvejitvenih časov drevesa IE jezikov Graya in Atkinsona [2] in ki neodvisno potrjujejo Anatolsko hipotezo C. Renfrew-a o času prve razvejitve IE jezika ter podajajo čase posameznih razvejitev IE jezikov.

 

 Korenine

KELTSKE SLEDI NA SLOVENSKEM - KRAJEVNA IMENA

F. F. Megušar

Kopališka 47, SI-4220 Škofja Loka, Slovenija

E-mail: france.megusar@uni-lj.si

 

Abstract

Traces of Ancient Celts in Slovenia: Place – Names

The paper comparatively examines toponyms densely located along the Roman defense line in western Slovenia, and whose etymology is unconvincing with the help of Slavic, Germanic, or Romanic vocabularies. Examined are the identical and/or related components of the toponyms with Celtic lexical elements, linked to historical and modern Celtic languages of western Europe - Cornish, Welsh, Gaelic and Breton - in the following toponyms: Komna, Bogatin, Komarča, Farji Potok, Zgaga, Zali Log, Kališe, Dražgoše, Dragobač, Bača pri Modreju, Luša, Gabrovo, Ravan, Kladje, Tolmin, Kobarid, Krn, Soča, Komen, Črni Kal, Osp, Koper, Briga and others. The discovered relevant Celtic lexical presence significantly relates to physical characteristics of the above toponyms in their natural environment. As the linguistic developments in the extreme west of Europe and Slovenia are separated by at least 1,500 kilometres and 1,500 years, the above toponyms of unresolved etymology through Slavic, Germanic and Romance languages, may supply useful markers to locate prehistoric and/or early historic settlers in south-eastern Alpine region.

 

Povzetek

Prispevek vzorčno obravnava toponime, ki se zgoščeno pojavljajo ob nekdanjem rimskem limesu v zahodni Sloveniji in katerih etimologija je neprepričljiva ali nepojasnljiva, kadar si pomagamo s slovanskimi, germanskimi ali romanskimi besednimi zakladnicami. Preverja se identičnost in/ali sorodnost današnjih in tudi zgodovinskih toponimov s keltsko leksiko kot je zgodovinsko in sodobno zajeta v keltskih jezikih zahodne Evrope: valižanščini, gelščini, kornvalščini in bretonščini pri naslednjih toponimih: Bogatin, Komna, Komarča, Farji Potok, Altemaver, Podlonk, Zgaga, Zali Log, Kališe, Dražgoše, Dragobač, Luša, Gabrovo, Ravan, Kladje, Bača pri Modreju, Tolmin, Kobarid, Krn, Soča, Komen, Črni kal, Osp, Koper, Briga na Kočevskem in drugi. Odkrivana vsebina relevantne keltske leksike večinoma značilno ponazarja fizikalne značilnosti lokalnega okolja, v katerem se naš toponim pojavlja. Izkaže se, da uporabljena metoda lingvistične komparacije lahko s krajevno fiksiranimi besednimi markerji pomaga pri lociranju in karakterizaciji staroselstva, četudi lingvistični razvoj na skrajnem zahodu Evrope in na jugovzhodnem področju Alp ločuje 1500 km in verjetno tudi 1500 let.

 

Korenine

PRIMERJAVA BRANJ RETIJSKEGA NAPISA NA MEČU IZ VERONE - POPRAVKI

Vinko Vodopivec

Pot na Drenikov vrh 12, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenija

E-mail: Vinko.Vodopivec@familia.si

 

Abstract

Comparison of Readings of the Rhaetian Inscription on the Sword of Verona: Corrections

In the published comparison of translations of the Rhaetian inscription on the "Sword of Verona" there exist some errors, which are corrected in the present paper. The corrections improve the position of transliteration and translation made by A. Ambrozic.

 

Povzetek

Pri objavljeni primerjavi branj retijskega napisa na "meču iz Verone" me je A. Ambrožič opozoril na napake pri uporabi njegovih prečrkovanj in branj. Za opozorilo se mu zahvaljujem in opravičujem za pomembne napake, ki sem jih zagrešil pri obravnavi njegovega teksta. Po odpravi teh napak se izboljša ocena njegovega prečrkovanja in prevoda.

Korenine